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CD4+ T-cell infiltration into the epithelial layers of the vagina in a DMPA-treated macaque
Deconvolution fluorescence microscopy identifies changes in the mucosal immune environment of the vaginal epithelial barrier in rhesus macaques after hormonal treatment. CD4+ T-cells (red, OKT4), target cells for HIV-1, are found in abundance in the vaginal epidermis in Depo Provera (DMPA)-treated macaques. This highlights injectable hormonal contraceptives and high progesterone as a potential HIV-1 risk factor for increased acquisition. Carias et al.
Image Credit: Ann M. Carias and Thomas J. Hope, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.