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Scanning electron microscope image of the spirochete Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain L495, illustrating the hook-shaped ends and helical cell morphology.

Two endoflagella are inserted at the poles of the bacterium, elongating in the periplasmic space. Their coordinated clockwise or counterclockwise rotation determines the hook- or spiral-shaped end of the bacterium, allowing or not the translational motility.

These zoonotic bacteria are pathogenic and escape the immune response of their hosts. We demonstrate here that they escape NOD1 and NOD2 responses in humans and mice. Werts et al.

Image Credit: Frédéric Veyrier, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Bacterial Symbionts Evolution, Laval, Quebec, Canada.