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Table of Contents: April 2009

Mice deficient in Arginase-1 in macrophages (Arg1-/flox; LysMcre) fail to downregulate the egg-induced inflammatory response when chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The Arg1-/flox; LysMcre also develop severe liver fibrosis, as shown here by second harmonic emission confocal microscopy. The image shows extensive collagen deposition around schistosome eggs lodged in the liver (see Pesce et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000371).

Image Credit: Meggan Czapiga, John Pesce, and Tom Wynn, NIAID/NIH.

Research Articles

Distinct Roles for FOXP3+ and FOXP3 CD4+ T Cells in Regulating Cellular Immunity to Uncomplicated and Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

Michael Walther, David Jeffries, Olivia C. Finney, Madi Njie, Augustine Ebonyi, Susanne Deininger, Emma Lawrence, Alfred Ngwa-Amambua, Shamanthi Jayasooriya, Ian H. Cheeseman, Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Joseph Okebe, David J. Conway, Eleanor M. Riley

Parasite-Dependent Expansion of TNF Receptor II–Positive Regulatory T Cells with Enhanced Suppressive Activity in Adults with Severe Malaria

Gabriela Minigo, Tonia Woodberry, Kim A. Piera, Ervi Salwati, Emiliana Tjitra, Enny Kenangalem, Ric N. Price, Christian R. Engwerda, Nicholas M. Anstey, Magdalena Plebanski

IP-10-Mediated T Cell Homing Promotes Cerebral Inflammation over Splenic Immunity to Malaria Infection

Catherine Q. Nie, Nicholas J. Bernard, M. Ursula Norman, Fiona H. Amante, Rachel J. Lundie, Brendan S. Crabb, William R. Heath, Christian R. Engwerda, Michael J. Hickey, Louis Schofield, Diana S. Hansen

Haemonchus contortus Acetylcholine Receptors of the DEG-3 Subfamily and Their Role in Sensitivity to Monepantel

Lucien Rufener, Pascal Mäser, Isabel Roditi, Ronald Kaminsky

Identification of Proteins Targeted by the Thioredoxin Superfamily in Plasmodium falciparum

Nicole Sturm, Esther Jortzik, Boniface M. Mailu, Sasa Koncarevic, Marcel Deponte, Karl Forchhammer, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker

Naturally Occurring Lipid A Mutants in Neisseria meningitidis from Patients with Invasive Meningococcal Disease Are Associated with Reduced Coagulopathy

Floris Fransen, Sebastiaan G. B. Heckenberg, Hendrik Jan Hamstra, Moniek Feller, Claire J. P. Boog, Jos P. M. van Putten, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Peter van der Ley

Synthetic Double-Stranded RNAs Are Adjuvants for the Induction of T Helper 1 and Humoral Immune Responses to Human Papillomavirus in Rhesus Macaques

Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Martin Eisenblätter, Edith Jasny, Tamara Rzehak, Klara Tenner-Racz, Christine Trumpfheller, Andres M. Salazar, Klaus Überla, Karen Nieto, Jürgen Kleinschmidt, Reiner Schulte, Lutz Gissmann, Martin Müller, Anna Sacher, Paul Racz, Ralph M. Steinman, Mariagrazia Uguccioni, Ralf Ignatius

A Novel Bocavirus Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Australian Children

Jane L. Arthur, Geoffrey D. Higgins, Geoffrey P. Davidson, Rodney C. Givney, Rodney M. Ratcliff

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phagosome Is a HLA-I Processing Competent Organelle

Jeff E. Grotzke, Melanie J. Harriff, Anne C. Siler, Dawn Nolt, Jacob Delepine, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, David M. Lewinsohn

A Novel Role for Stat1 in Phagosome Acidification and Natural Host Resistance to Intracellular Infection by Leishmania major

Gerald F. Späth, Paul Schlesinger, Robert Schreiber, Stephen M. Beverley

Phasevarions Mediate Random Switching of Gene Expression in Pathogenic Neisseria

Yogitha N. Srikhanta, Stefanie J. Dowideit, Jennifer L. Edwards, Megan L. Falsetta, Hsing-Ju Wu, Odile B. Harrison, Kate L. Fox, Kate L. Seib, Tina L. Maguire, Andrew H.-J. Wang, Martin C. Maiden, Sean M. Grimmond, Michael A. Apicella, Michael P. Jennings

Association of Progressive CD4+ T Cell Decline in SIV Infection with the Induction of Autoreactive Antibodies

Takeo Kuwata, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Sonya Whitted, Ilnour Ourmanov, Charles R. Brown, Que Dang, Alicia Buckler-White, Ranjini Iyengar, Jason M. Brenchley, Vanessa M. Hirsch

Soluble CD4 and CD4-Mimetic Compounds Inhibit HIV-1 Infection by Induction of a Short-Lived Activated State

Hillel Haim, Zhihai Si, Navid Madani, Liping Wang, Joel R. Courter, Amy Princiotto, Aemro Kassa, Marciella DeGrace, Kathleen McGee-Estrada, Megan Mefford, Dana Gabuzda, Amos B. Smith III, Joseph Sodroski

Caspase-7 Activation by the Nlrc4/Ipaf Inflammasome Restricts Legionella pneumophila Infection

Anwari Akhter, Mikhail A. Gavrilin, Laura Frantz, Songcerae Washington, Cameron Ditty, Dominique Limoli, Colby Day, Anasuya Sarkar, Christie Newland, Jonathan Butchar, Clay B. Marsh, Mark D. Wewers, Susheela Tridandapani, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Amal O. Amer

Long-Distance Delivery of Bacterial Virulence Factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Vesicles

Jennifer M. Bomberger, Daniel P. MacEachran, Bonita A. Coutermarsh, Siying Ye, George A. O'Toole, Bruce A. Stanton

Early Onset Prion Disease from Octarepeat Expansion Correlates with Copper Binding Properties

Daniel J. Stevens, Eric D. Walter, Abel Rodríguez, David Draper, Paul Davies, David R. Brown, Glenn L. Millhauser

Host-Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Orthologs Are Cellular Receptors for Nonpathogenic New World Clade B Arenaviruses

Jonathan Abraham, Jo Ann Kwong, César G. Albariño, Jiajie G. Lu, Sheli R. Radoshitzky, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Michael Farzan, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Hyeryun Choe

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Enters Cells through Vesicles Incompletely Coated with Clathrin That Depend upon Actin for Internalization

David K. Cureton, Ramiro H. Massol, Saveez Saffarian, Tomas L. Kirchhausen, Sean P. J. Whelan

Arginase-1–Expressing Macrophages Suppress Th2 Cytokine–Driven Inflammation and Fibrosis

John T. Pesce, Thirumalai R. Ramalingam, Margaret M. Mentink-Kane, Mark S. Wilson, Karim C. El Kasmi, Amber M. Smith, Robert W. Thompson, Allen W. Cheever, Peter J. Murray, Thomas A. Wynn

MAPK ERK Signaling Regulates the TGF-β1-Dependent Mosquito Response to Plasmodium falciparum

Win Surachetpong, Naresh Singh, Kong Wai Cheung, Shirley Luckhart

Mycobacteria Attenuate Nociceptive Responses by Formyl Peptide Receptor Triggered Opioid Peptide Release from Neutrophils

Heike L. Rittner, Dagmar Hackel, Philipp Voigt, Shaaban Mousa, Andrea Stolz, Dominika Labuz, Michael Schäfer, Michael Schaefer, Christoph Stein, Alexander Brack

A Novel Pathogenicity Gene Is Required in the Rice Blast Fungus to Suppress the Basal Defenses of the Host

Myoung-Hwan Chi, Sook-Young Park, Soonok Kim, Yong-Hwan Lee

Pre-Micro RNA Signatures Delineate Stages of Endothelial Cell Transformation in Kaposi Sarcoma

Andrea J. O'Hara, Pauline Chugh, Ling Wang, Eduardo M. Netto, Estrella Luz, William J. Harrington Jr., Bruce J. Dezube, Blossom Damania, Dirk P. Dittmer

Mechanism of Genomic Instability in Cells Infected with the High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses

Meelis Kadaja, Helen Isok-Paas, Triin Laos, Ene Ustav, Mart Ustav

A Herpesvirus Encoded Deubiquitinase Is a Novel Neuroinvasive Determinant

Joy I. Lee, Patricia J. Sollars, Scott B. Baver, Gary E. Pickard, Mindy Leelawong, Gregory A. Smith

A Critical Role for CD8 T Cells in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Tuberculosis

Crystal Y. Chen, Dan Huang, Richard C. Wang, Ling Shen, Gucheng Zeng, Shuyun Yao, Yun Shen, Lisa Halliday, Jeff Fortman, Milton McAllister, Jim Estep, Robert Hunt, Daphne Vasconcelos, George Du, Steven A. Porcelli, Michelle H. Larsen, William R. Jacobs Jr., Barton F. Haynes, Norman L. Letvin, Zheng W. Chen

Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs IL-8 Expression in Epithelial Cells through Inhibition of Histone H3 Modification

Benoit Raymond, Eric Batsche, Florence Boutillon, Yong-Zheng Wu, Dominique Leduc, Viviane Balloy, Eloïse Raoust, Christian Muchardt, Pierre L. Goossens, Lhousseine Touqui

Elite Suppressor–Derived HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Exhibit Reduced Entry Efficiency and Kinetics

Kara G. Lassen, Michael A. Lobritz, Justin R. Bailey, Samantha Johnston, Sandra Nguyen, Benhur Lee, Tom Chou, Robert F. Siliciano, Martin Markowitz, Eric J. Arts

Variable Fitness Impact of HIV-1 Escape Mutations to Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Response

Ryan M. Troyer, John McNevin, Yi Liu, Shao Chong Zhang, Randall W. Krizan, Awet Abraha, Denis M. Tebit, Hong Zhao, Santiago Avila, Michael A. Lobritz, M. Juliana McElrath, Sylvie Le Gall, James I. Mullins, Eric J. Arts

Complexity of the Inoculum Determines the Rate of Reversion of SIV Gag CD8 T Cell Mutant Virus and Outcome of Infection

Liyen Loh, Jeanette C. Reece, Caroline S. Fernandez, Sheilajen Alcantara, Robert Center, Jane Howard, Damian F. J. Purcell, Mehala Balamurali, Janka Petravic, Miles P. Davenport, Stephen J. Kent

Likely Role of APOBEC3G-Mediated G-to-A Mutations in HIV-1 Evolution and Drug Resistance

Patric Jern, Rebecca A. Russell, Vinay K. Pathak, John M. Coffin

Compartmentalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Originates from Long-Lived Cells in Some Subjects with HIV-1–Associated Dementia

Gretja Schnell, Serena Spudich, Patrick Harrington, Richard W. Price, Ronald Swanstrom

Deletions in the Repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Type III Secretion Effector Genes Reveal Functional Overlap among Effectors

Brian H. Kvitko, Duck Hwan Park, André C. Velásquez, Chia-Fong Wei, Alistair B. Russell, Gregory B. Martin, David J. Schneider, Alan Collmer

Evidence for Metabolic Provisioning by a Common Invertebrate Endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, during Periods of Nutritional Stress

Jeremy C. Brownlie, Bodil N. Cass, Markus Riegler, Joris J. Witsenburg, Iñaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Elizabeth A. McGraw, Scott L. O'Neill

Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis Infective Larvae Requires the DAF-16 Ortholog FKTF-1

Michelle L. Castelletto, Holman C. Massey Jr., James B. Lok

Retnla (Relmα/Fizz1) Suppresses Helminth-Induced Th2-Type Immunity

John T. Pesce, Thirumalai R. Ramalingam, Mark S. Wilson, Margaret M. Mentink-Kane, Robert W. Thompson, Allen W. Cheever, Joseph F. Urban Jr., Thomas A. Wynn