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Table of Contents: January 2017

Scanning electron micrograph of Trypanosoma brucei, illustrating the flagellum (pseudo-colored in pink) that adheres to the cell surface. Flagellum-cell body adhesion requires a specialized cytoskeletal structure termed flagellum attachment zone filament. Assembly of this filament requires the Polo-like kinase, whose level is under stringent control. A Cullin4-based ubiquitin ligase targets Polo-like kinase for ubiquitination and degradation after the G1/S cell cycle transition, thereby ensuring flagellum-cell body adhesion. Hu et al.

Image Credit: Ziyin Li and Hung Quang Dang (University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston)

Opinion

Fighting Ebola: A Window for Vaccine Re-evaluation?

Keith J. Chappell, Daniel Watterson

Pearls

Microbial Partnerships of Pathogenic Oomycetes

Marie Larousse, Eric Galiana

Common Commensal Cancer Viruses

Patrick S. Moore, Yuan Chang

Zoonotic Epidemic of Sporotrichosis: Cat to Human Transmission

Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Luisa Helena Monteiro Miranda, Erica Guerino Reis, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Sandro Antonio Pereira

Vibrio vulnificus: From Oyster Colonist to Human Pathogen

Kelsey E. Phillips, Karla J. F. Satchell

Review

A Receptor’s Tale: An Eon in the Life of a Trypanosome Receptor

Matthew K. Higgins, Harriet Lane-Serff, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington

Research Articles

Anthropogenically driven environmental changes shift the ecological dynamics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

Huaiyu Tian, Pengbo Yu, Ottar N. Bjørnstad, Bernard Cazelles, Jing Yang, Hua Tan, Shanqian Huang, Yujun Cui, Lu Dong, Chaofeng Ma, Changan Ma, Sen Zhou, Marko Laine, Xiaoxu Wu, Yanyun Zhang, Jingjun Wang, Ruifu Yang, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Bing Xu

Vaccination has minimal impact on the intrahost diversity of H3N2 influenza viruses

Kari Debbink, John T. McCrone, Joshua G. Petrie, Rachel Truscon, Emileigh Johnson, Emily K. Mantlo, Arnold S. Monto, Adam S. Lauring

Transcriptional Profiling in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis Reveals a Broad Splenic Inflammatory Environment that Conditions Macrophages toward a Disease-Promoting Phenotype

Fanping Kong, Omar A. Saldarriaga, Heidi Spratt, E. Yaneth Osorio, Bruno L. Travi, Bruce A. Luxon, Peter C. Melby

Naturally Acquired Human Immunity to Pneumococcus Is Dependent on Antibody to Protein Antigens

Robert Wilson, Jonathan M. Cohen, Mark Reglinski, Ricardo J. Jose, Win Yan Chan, Helina Marshall, Corné de Vogel, Stephen Gordon, David Goldblatt, Fernanda C. Petersen, Helen Baxendale, Jeremy S. Brown

Blocking two-component signalling enhances Candida albicans virulence and reveals adaptive mechanisms that counteract sustained SAPK activation

Alison M. Day, Deborah A. Smith, Mélanie A. C. Ikeh, Mohammed Haider, Carmen M. Herrero-de-Dios, Alistair J. P. Brown, Brian A. Morgan, Lars P. Erwig, Donna M. MacCallum, Janet Quinn

Synthetic lethal mutations in the cyclin A interface of human cytomegalovirus

Henry Weisbach, Christoph Schablowsky, Barbara Vetter, Iris Gruska, Christian Hagemeier, Lüder Wiebusch

A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin

Yao Liu, Wenhan Zhu, Yunhao Tan, Ernesto S. Nakayasu, Christopher J. Staiger, Zhao-Qing Luo

Siglec-1 initiates formation of the virus-containing compartment and enhances macrophage-to-T cell transmission of HIV-1

Jason E. Hammonds, Neal Beeman, Lingmei Ding, Sarah Takushi, Ashwanth C. Francis, Jaang-Jiun Wang, Gregory B. Melikyan, Paul Spearman

IL-27 Limits Type 2 Immunopathology Following Parainfluenza Virus Infection

Gaia Muallem, Sagie Wagage, Yan Sun, Jonathan H. DeLong, Alex Valenzuela, David A. Christian, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Qun Fang, Elizabeth L. Buza, Deepika Jain, M. Merle Elloso, Carolina B. López, Christopher A. Hunter

Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections

Yanbao Yu, Keehwan Kwon, Tamara Tsitrin, Shiferaw Bekele, Patricia Sikorski, Karen E. Nelson, Rembert Pieper

Toxoplasma gondii GRA7-Targeted ASC and PLD1 Promote Antibacterial Host Defense via PKCα

Hyun-Jung Koh, Ye-Ram Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jin-Seung Yun, Kiseok Jang, Chul-Su Yang

Dysregulation of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Responses to Microbial and Food Antigens as a Factor Contributing to Microbial Translocation and Chronic Inflammation in HIV-1 Infection

Zdenek Hel, Jun Xu, Warren L. Denning, E. Scott Helton, Richard P. H. Huijbregts, Sonya L. Heath, E. Turner Overton, Benjamin S. Christmann, Charles O. Elson, Paul A. Goepfert, Jiri Mestecky

Epigenetic Landscape of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Genome in Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma Tissues

Rui Sun, Xiaohua Tan, Xing Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Lei Yang, Erle S. Robertson, Ke Lan

Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor

Saskia Keller, Udo Hetzel, Tarja Sironen, Yegor Korzyukov, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Jussi Hepojoki

L-glutamine Induces Expression of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Genes

Adi Haber, Sivan Friedman, Lior Lobel, Tamar Burg-Golani, Nadejda Sigal, Jessica Rose, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson, Anat A. Herskovits

Proline Metabolism is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei brucei Survival in the Tsetse Vector

Brian S. Mantilla, Letícia Marchese, Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Naomi A. Dyer, Nicholas Ejeh, Marc Biran, Frédéric Bringaud, Michael J. Lehane, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ariel M. Silber

Evidence for Integrin – Venus Kinase Receptor 1 Alliance in the Ovary of Schistosoma mansoni Females Controlling Cell Survival

Verena Gelmedin, Marion Morel, Steffen Hahnel, Katia Cailliau, Colette Dissous, Christoph G. Grevelding

The Trypanosome Exocyst: A Conserved Structure Revealing a New Role in Endocytosis

Cordula M. Boehm, Samson Obado, Catarina Gadelha, Alexandra Kaupisch, Paul T. Manna, Gwyn W. Gould, Mary Munson, Brian T. Chait, Michael P. Rout, Mark C. Field

RNAi-Based Functional Genomics Identifies New Virulence Determinants in Mucormycosis

Trung Anh Trieu, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Patricia Navarro-Rodriguez, Loida Lopez-Fernandez, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Victoriano Garre, Rosa María Ruiz-Vázquez, Francisco E. Nicolás

BET-Inhibitors Disrupt Rad21-Dependent Conformational Control of KSHV Latency

Horng-Shen Chen, Alessandra De Leo, Zhuo Wang, Andrew Kerekovic, Robert Hills, Paul M. Lieberman

HTLV-1 Tax Induces Formation of the Active Macromolecular IKK Complex by Generating Lys63- and Met1-Linked Hybrid Polyubiquitin Chains

Yuri Shibata, Fuminori Tokunaga, Eiji Goto, Ginga Komatsu, Jin Gohda, Yasushi Saeki, Keiji Tanaka, Hirotaka Takahashi, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Satoshi Inoue, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yuetsu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Iwai, Jun-ichiro Inoue

An HSV-2 Trivalent Vaccine Is Immunogenic in Rhesus Macaques and Highly Efficacious in Guinea Pigs

Sita Awasthi, Lauren M. Hook, Carolyn E. Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A. Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S. Veazey, Harvey M. Friedman

Static and Evolving Norovirus Genotypes: Implications for Epidemiology and Immunity

Gabriel I. Parra, R. Burke Squires, Consolee K. Karangwa, Jordan A. Johnson, Cara J. Lepore, Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev, Kim Y. Green

A Superoxide Dismutase Capable of Functioning with Iron or Manganese Promotes the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Calprotectin and Nutritional Immunity

Yuritzi M. Garcia, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Eric P. Skaar, Kevin J. Waldron, Thomas E. Kehl-Fie

Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach

Julie Y. Huang, Emily Goers Sweeney, Karen Guillemin, Manuel R. Amieva

Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines

Helen Fox, Sarah Knowlson, Philip D. Minor, Andrew J. Macadam

Nuclear Localization and Cleavage of STAT6 Is Induced by Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus for Viral Latency

Chong Wang, Caixia Zhu, Fang Wei, Shujun Gao, Liming Zhang, Yuhong Li, Yanling Feng, Yin Tong, Jianqing Xu, Bin Wang, Zhenghong Yuan, Erle S. Robertson, Qiliang Cai

Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma

Evelyn Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

SENP7 Potentiates cGAS Activation by Relieving SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Cytosolic DNA Sensing

Ye Cui, Huansha Yu, Xin Zheng, Rui Peng, Qiang Wang, Yi Zhou, Rui Wang, Jiehua Wang, Bo Qu, Nan Shen, Qiang Guo, Xing Liu, Chen Wang

Leishmania HASP and SHERP Genes Are Required for In Vivo Differentiation, Parasite Transmission and Virulence Attenuation in the Host

Johannes S. P. Doehl, Jovana Sádlová, Hamide Aslan, Kateřina Pružinová, Sonia Metangmo, Jan Votýpka, Shaden Kamhawi, Petr Volf, Deborah F. Smith

Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

Gloria Volohonsky, Ann-Katrin Hopp, Mélanie Saenger, Julien Soichot, Heidi Scholze, Jens Boch, Stéphanie A. Blandin, Eric Marois

The Plasmin-Sensitive Protein Pls in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Is a Glycoprotein

Isabelle Bleiziffer, Julian Eikmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Kathryn McAulay, Guoqing Xia, Muzaffar Hussain, Andreas Peschel, Simon Foster, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann

Probability of Transmission of Malaria from Mosquito to Human Is Regulated by Mosquito Parasite Density in Naïve and Vaccinated Hosts

Thomas S. Churcher, Robert E. Sinden, Nick J. Edwards, Ian D. Poulton, Thomas W. Rampling, Patrick M. Brock, Jamie T. Griffin, Leanna M. Upton, Sara E. Zakutansky, Katarzyna A. Sala, Fiona Angrisano, Adrian V. S. Hill, Andrew M. Blagborough

Neutrophil Interactions Stimulate Evasive Hyphal Branching by Aspergillus fumigatus

Felix Ellett, Julianne Jorgensen, Galit H. Frydman, Caroline N. Jones, Daniel Irimia

Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress

Jingjing Liang, Cari A. Sagum, Mark T. Bedford, Sachdev S. Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ziying Han, Ronald N. Harty

Structure and Recognition of a Novel HIV-1 gp120-gp41 Interface Antibody that Caused MPER Exposure through Viral Escape

Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Jason Gorman, Gabriel Ozorowski, Jinal N. Bhiman, Daniel J. Sheward, Debra H. Elliott, Julie Rouelle, Ashley Smira, M. Gordon Joyce, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Aliaksandr Druz, Mangai Asokan, Dennis R. Burton, Mark Connors, Salim S. Abdool Karim, John R. Mascola, James E. Robinson, Andrew B. Ward, Carolyn Williamson, Peter D. Kwong, Lynn Morris, Penny L. Moore

When Viruses Don’t Go Viral: The Importance of Host Phylogeographic Structure in the Spatial Spread of Arenaviruses

Sophie Gryseels, Stuart J. E. Baird, Benny Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq

Social and Genetic Networks of HIV-1 Transmission in New York City

Joel O. Wertheim, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Lisa A. Forgione, Sanjay R. Mehta, Ben Murrell, Sharmila Shah, Davey M. Smith, Konrad Scheffler, Lucia V. Torian

TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP)

Melody M. H. Li, Zerlina Lau, Pamela Cheung, Eduardo G. Aguilar, William M. Schneider, Leonia Bozzacco, Henrik Molina, Eugen Buehler, Akinori Takaoka, Charles M. Rice, Dan P. Felsenfeld, Margaret R. MacDonald

EV71 3D Protein Binds with NLRP3 and Enhances the Assembly of Inflammasome Complex

Wenbiao Wang, Feng Xiao, Pin Wan, Pan Pan, Yecheng Zhang, Fang Liu, Kailang Wu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu

The TIR Homologue Lies near Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus aureus, Coupling Modulation of Virulence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

Sabine Patot, Paul RC Imbert, Jessica Baude, Patricia Martins Simões, Jean-Baptiste Campergue, Arthur Louche, Reindert Nijland, Michèle Bès, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, Adrien Fischer, Jacques Schrenzel, François Vandenesch, Suzana P Salcedo, Patrice François, Gérard Lina

Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis

Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X. Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E. Winter, Andreas J. Bäumler

Autophagy Is an Innate Mechanism Associated with Leprosy Polarization

Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Priscila Ribeiro Andrade, Helen Ferreira, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Suzana Côrte-Real, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Mario Fabri, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro

Molecular Characterization of N-glycan Degradation and Transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Its Contribution to Virulence

Melissa Robb, Joanne K. Hobbs, Shireen A. Woodiga, Sarah Shapiro-Ward, Michael D. L. Suits, Nicholas McGregor, Harry Brumer, Hasan Yesilkaya, Samantha J. King, Alisdair B. Boraston

Detection of Viral RNA in Tissues following Plasma Clearance from an Ebola Virus Infected Patient

Mirella Biava, Claudia Caglioti, Licia Bordi, Concetta Castilletti, Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Emanuele Nicastri, Francesco Nicola Lauria, Nicola Petrosillo, Simone Lanini, Thomas Hoenen, Gary Kobinger, Alimuddin Zumla, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Eleonora Lalle

Wolbachia Infections in Aedes aegypti Differ Markedly in Their Response to Cyclical Heat Stress

Perran A. Ross, Itsanun Wiwatanaratanabutr, Jason K. Axford, Vanessa L. White, Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman, Ary A. Hoffmann

Mapping Polyclonal HIV-1 Antibody Responses via Next-Generation Neutralization Fingerprinting

Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Han R. Altae-Tran, Ryan S. Roark, Stephen D. Schmidt, Matthew S. Sutton, Mark K. Louder, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Robert T. Bailer, Valerie Cortez, Rui Kong, Krisha McKee, Sijy O’Dell, Felicia Wang, Salim S. Abdool Karim, James M. Binley, Mark Connors, Barton F. Haynes, Malcolm A. Martin, David C. Montefiori, Lynn Morris, Julie Overbaugh, Peter D. Kwong, John R. Mascola, Ivelin S. Georgiev

A Novel Zn2-Cys6 Transcription Factor AtrR Plays a Key Role in an Azole Resistance Mechanism of Aspergillus fumigatus by Co-regulating cyp51A and cdr1B Expressions

Daisuke Hagiwara, Daisuke Miura, Kiminori Shimizu, Sanjoy Paul, Ayumi Ohba, Tohru Gonoi, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Takahiro Shintani, W. Scott Moye-Rowley, Susumu Kawamoto, Katsuya Gomi

RNA Sequencing Reveals that Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection Mimics Hypoxia Gene Expression Signature

Coralie Viollet, David A. Davis, Shewit S. Tekeste, Martin Reczko, Joseph M. Ziegelbauer, Francesco Pezzella, Jiannis Ragoussis, Robert Yarchoan

Glucocorticoid Insensitivity in Virally Infected Airway Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity

Yuxiu C. Xia, Asmaa Radwan, Christine R. Keenan, Shenna Y. Langenbach, Meina Li, Danica Radojicic, Sarah L. Londrigan, Rosa C. Gualano, Alastair G. Stewart

HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Enhances T-Cell Proliferation by Impeding the Suppressive Signaling of Co-inhibitory Receptors

Haruka Kinosada, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Kazuya Shimura, Paola Miyazato, Chiho Onishi, Tomonori Iyoda, Kayo Inaba, Masao Matsuoka

An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity

Matthew M. Schaefers, Tiffany L. Liao, Nicole M. Boisvert, Damien Roux, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Gregory P. Priebe

Early Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Lower HIV DNA Molecular Diversity and Lower Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid but Does Not Prevent the Establishment of Compartmentalized HIV DNA Populations

Michelli F. Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Masato Nakazawa, Milenka Vargas, Scott L. Letendre, Matthew C. Strain, Ronald J. Ellis, Sheldon Morris, Susan J. Little, Davey M. Smith, Sara Gianella