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Table of Contents

May 2020

With exciting new NASA plans for a sustainable return to the moon, astronauts will once again leave Earth's protective magnetosphere only to endure higher levels of radiation from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the possibility of a large solar particle event (SPE). Gateway, lunar landers, and surface habitats will be designed to protect crew against SPEs with vehicle optimization, storm shelter concepts, and/or active dosimetry; however, the ever penetrating GCR will continue to pose the most significant health risks especially as lunar missions increase in duration and as NASA sets its aspirations on Mars. Historically, most research on understanding space radiation-induced health risks has been performed using acute exposures of monoenergetic single-ion beams. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species over a broad energy range. Simonsen et al. describe how, using the fast beam switching and controls systems technology recently developed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, a new era in radiobiological research is possible. NASA has developed the "GCR Simulator" to generate a spectrum of ion beams that approximates the primary and secondary GCR field experienced at human organ locations within a deep-space vehicle. The image represents the impact of such a spectrum of ions on the human body; proportionally, the numerous white and blue tracks are representative of proton and helium ion strikes while the thicker colored tracks are representative of heavier ions such as oxygen, carbon, and iron nuclei which impart greater damage to cells, tissues, and organs per track.

Image Credit: NASA

Research Articles

Antibiotics can be used to contain drug-resistant bacteria by maintaining sufficiently large sensitive populations

Elsa Hansen, Jason Karslake, Robert J. Woods, Andrew F. Read, Kevin B. Wood

Humanization of yeast genes with multiple human orthologs reveals functional divergence between paralogs

Jon M. Laurent, Riddhiman K. Garge, Ashley I. Teufel, Claus O. Wilke, Aashiq H. Kachroo, Edward M. Marcotte

Dynamical footprints enable detection of disease emergence

Tobias S. Brett, Pejman Rohani

Genuine cross-frequency coupling networks in human resting-state electrophysiological recordings

Felix Siebenhühner, Sheng H. Wang, Gabriele Arnulfo, Anna Lampinen, Lino Nobili, J. Matias Palva, Satu Palva

Behavioral flexibility is associated with changes in structure and function distributed across a frontal cortical network in macaques

Jérôme Sallet, MaryAnn P. Noonan, Adam Thomas, Jill X. O’Reilly, Jesper Anderson, Georgios K. Papageorgiou, Franz X. Neubert, Bashir Ahmed, Jackson Smith, Andrew H. Bell, Mark J. Buckley, Léa Roumazeilles, Steven Cuell, Mark E. Walton, Kristine Krug, Rogier B. Mars, Matthew F. S. Rushworth

Anticipation-induced delta phase reset improves human olfactory perception

Ghazaleh Arabkheradmand, Guangyu Zhou, Torben Noto, Qiaohan Yang, Stephan U. Schuele, Josef Parvizi, Jay A. Gottfried, Shasha Wu, Joshua M. Rosenow, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi, Gregory Lane, Christina Zelano

Predictive whisker kinematics reveal context-dependent sensorimotor strategies

Avner Wallach, David Deutsch, Tess Baker Oram, Ehud Ahissar

The haemodynamics of the human placenta in utero

Neele S. Dellschaft, George Hutchinson, Simon Shah, Nia W. Jones, Chris Bradley, Lopa Leach, Craig Platt, Richard Bowtell, Penny A. Gowland

HIV-1 Tat-mediated astrocytic amyloidosis involves the HIF-1α/lncRNA BACE1-AS axis

Susmita Sil, Guoku Hu, Ke Liao, Fang Niu, Shannon Callen, Palsamy Periyasamy, Howard S. Fox, Shilpa Buch

The evolution of the type VI secretion system as a disintegration weapon

William P. J. Smith, Andrea Vettiger, Julius Winter, Till Ryser, Laurie E. Comstock, Marek Basler, Kevin R. Foster

Structure of TBC1D23 N-terminus reveals a novel role for rhodanese domain

Dingdong Liu, Fan Yang, Zhe Liu, Jinrui Wang, Wenjie Huang, Wentong Meng, Daniel D. Billadeau, Qingxiang Sun, Xianming Mo, Da Jia

Short Reports

Haplotype of the astrocytic water channel AQP4 is associated with slow wave energy regulation in human NREM sleep

Sara Marie Ulv Larsen, Hans-Peter Landolt, Wolfgang Berger, Maiken Nedergaard, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Sebastian Camillo Holst

Methods and Resources

Vascularized human cortical organoids (vOrganoids) model cortical development in vivo

Yingchao Shi, Le Sun, Mengdi Wang, Jianwei Liu, Suijuan Zhong, Rui Li, Peng Li, Lijie Guo, Ai Fang, Ruiguo Chen, Woo-Ping Ge, Qian Wu, Xiaoqun Wang

Single-cell transcription analysis of Plasmodium vivax blood-stage parasites identifies stage- and species-specific profiles of expression

Juliana M. Sà, Matthew V. Cannon, Ramoncito L. Caleon, Thomas E. Wellems, David Serre