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Table of Contents

September 2020

The Myriapoda, composed of millipedes and centipedes, is a fascinating but poorly understood branch of life, including species with a highly unusual body plan and a range of unique adaptations to their environment. Qu et al sequenced and assembled chromosomal-level genomes of two millipede species; Helicorthomorpha holstii and Trigoniulus corallinus. Unique genomic features, patterns of gene regulation, and defence systems in millipedes, not observed in other arthropods, were revealed. Both repeat content and intron size are major contributors to the observed differences in millipede genome size. Millipedes possesses a unique ozadene defensive gland unlike the venomous forcipules found in centipedes; the authors identify sets of genes associated with the ozadene that play roles in chemical defence as well as antimicrobial activity. Collectively, the analyses of millipede genomes reveal that a series of unique adaptations have occurred in this major lineage of arthropod diversity. The image shows the rusty millipede Trigoniulus corallinus (Spirobolida, left) and the orange rosary millipede Helicorthomorpha holstii (Polydesmida, right).

Image Credit: Wai Lok So

Community Page

The World Coral Conservatory (WCC): A Noah's ark for corals to support survival of reef ecosystems

Didier Zoccola, Nadia Ounais, Dominique Barthelemy, Robert Calcagno, Françoise Gaill, Stephane Henard, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Max Janse, Jean Jaubert, Hollie Putnam, Bernard Salvat, Christian R. Voolstra, Denis Allemand

Research Articles

Evolutionary dynamics in the Anthropocene: Life history and intensity of human contact shape antipredator responses

Benjamin Geffroy, Bastien Sadoul, Breanna J. Putman, Oded Berger-Tal, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Anders Pape Møller, Daniel T. Blumstein

Millipede genomes reveal unique adaptations during myriapod evolution

Zhe Qu, Wenyan Nong, Wai Lok So, Tom Barton-Owen, Yiqian Li, Thomas C. N. Leung, Chade Li, Tobias Baril, Annette Y. P. Wong, Thomas Swale, Ting-Fung Chan, Alexander Hayward, Sai-Ming Ngai, Jerome H. L. Hui

Diet choice: The two-factor host acceptance system of silkworm larvae

Kana Tsuneto, Haruka Endo, Fumika Shii, Ken Sasaki, Shinji Nagata, Ryoichi Sato

Selective enhancement of low-gamma activity by tACS improves phonemic processing and reading accuracy in dyslexia

Silvia Marchesotti, Johanna Nicolle, Isabelle Merlet, Luc H. Arnal, John P. Donoghue, Anne-Lise Giraud

In vivo antiviral host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 by viral load, sex, and age

Nicole A. P. Lieberman, Vikas Peddu, Hong Xie, Lasata Shrestha, Meei-Li Huang, Megan C. Mears, Maria N. Cajimat, Dennis A. Bente, Pei-Yong Shi, Francesca Bovier, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Keith R. Jerome, Anne Moscona, Matteo Porotto, Alexander L. Greninger

Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer via TGFβ-dependent Smad/YAP/TAZ signaling

Yi-Jun Qi, Ye-Lin Jiao, Pan Chen, Jin-Yu Kong, Bian-Li Gu, Ke Liu, Dan-Dan Feng, Ya-Fei Zhu, Hao-Jie Ruan, Zi-Jun Lan, Qi-Wei Liu, You-Jia Mi, Xiang-Qian Guo, Ming Wang, Gao-Feng Liang, Richard J. Lamont, Huizhi Wang, Fu-You Zhou, Xiao-Shan Feng, She-Gan Gao

High-coverage plasma lipidomics reveals novel sex-specific lipidomic fingerprints of age and BMI: Evidence from two large population cohort studies

Habtamu B. Beyene, Gavriel Olshansky, Adam Alexander T. Smith, Corey Giles, Kevin Huynh, Michelle Cinel, Natalie A. Mellett, Gemma Cadby, Joseph Hung, Jennie Hui, John Beilby, Gerald F. Watts, Jonathan S. Shaw, Eric K. Moses, Dianna J. Magliano, Peter J. Meikle

Short-chain fatty acids bind to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein to activate inflammasome complex to prevent Salmonella infection

Hitoshi Tsugawa, Yasuaki Kabe, Ayaka Kanai, Yuki Sugiura, Shigeaki Hida, Shun’ichiro Taniguchi, Toshio Takahashi, Hidenori Matsui, Zenta Yasukawa, Hiroyuki Itou, Keiyo Takubo, Hidekazu Suzuki, Kenya Honda, Hiroshi Handa, Makoto Suematsu

Two unequally redundant "helper" immune receptor families mediate Arabidopsis thaliana intracellular "sensor" immune receptor functions

Svenja C. Saile, Pierre Jacob, Baptiste Castel, Lance M. Jubic, Isai Salas-Gonzáles, Marcel Bäcker, Jonathan D. G. Jones, Jeffery L. Dangl, Farid El Kasmi

Posttranslational insertion of small membrane proteins by the bacterial signal recognition particle

Ruth Steinberg, Andrea Origi, Ana Natriashvili, Pinku Sarmah, Mariya Licheva, Princess M. Walker, Claudine Kraft, Stephen High, Joen Luirink, Wei. Q. Shi, Martin Helmstädter, Maximilian H. Ulbrich, Hans-Georg Koch

Full-length three-dimensional structure of the influenza A virus M1 protein and its organization into a matrix layer

Lisa Selzer, Zhaoming Su, Grigore D. Pintilie, Wah Chiu, Karla Kirkegaard

Leiomodin creates a leaky cap at the pointed end of actin-thin filaments

Dmitri Tolkatchev, Garry E. Smith Jr., Lauren E. Schultz, Mert Colpan, Gregory L. Helms, John R. Cort, Carol C. Gregorio, Alla S. Kostyukova

Short Reports

Encoding of social exploration by neural ensembles in the insular cortex

Isamu Miura, Masaaki Sato, Eric T. N. Overton, Nobuo Kunori, Junichi Nakai, Takakazu Kawamata, Nobuhiro Nakai, Toru Takumi

Delay-period activity in frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex tracks noise and biases in visual working memory

Qing Yu, Matthew F. Panichello, Ying Cai, Bradley R. Postle, Timothy J. Buschman

Histamine-induced biphasic activation of RhoA allows for persistent RhoA signaling

Jason Z. Zhang, Andy H. Nguyen, Shigeki Miyamoto, Joan Heller Brown, Andrew D. McCulloch, Jin Zhang

Methods and Resources

CombiANT: Antibiotic interaction testing made easy

Nikos Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Roderich Roemhild, Po-Cheng Tang, Johan Kreuger, Dan I. Andersson

Isolation of antigen-specific, disulphide-rich knob domain peptides from bovine antibodies

Alex Macpherson, Anthony Scott-Tucker, Anastasios Spiliotopoulos, Catherine Simpson, Justin Staniforth, Adam Hold, James Snowden, Leah Manning, Jean van den Elsen, Alastair D. G. Lawson