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Brain Repopulation by Microglia

February 8, 2019

Brain Repopulation by Microglia

Microglia, the brain’s primary immune sentinels, quickly regenerate and restore their population after an acute insult. Lihong Zhan, Li Gan and colleagues use lineage tracing to address the debate about the origin of repopulating microglia and describes the spatial and temporal characteristics of microglial regeneration.

Image credit: Li Gan

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PLOS Biology's XV Collection

02/14/2019

Research Article

Placenta — as Well as Testes — Maketh Man

Fetal human masculinisation depends on testosterone production by the testes and an alternative “backdoor” androgen. Peter O’Shaughnessy, Michelle Bellingham, Paul Fowler and co-workers show that this androgen is likely to be androsterone, which is sexually dimorphic in the fetus but does not come from the testes; instead, synthesis probably depends on placental substrates.

Image credit: Zoe Johnston

Placenta — as Well as Testes — Maketh Man

Recently Published Articles

Current Issue

Current Issue January 2019

02/08/2019

Research Article

Activating SOD1... Safely

Structures of the complexes formed between human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and its copper chaperone hCCS, by Fernanda Sala, Gareth Wright, Samar Hasnain and co-authors, give mechanistic insights into the interaction that culminates in SOD1 activation, minimising copper wastage and production of potentially toxic SOD1 species.

Image credit: pbio.3000141

Activating SOD1... Safely

02/11/2019

Research Article

Ecdysone Turns Off Regeneration

Karine Narbonne-Reveau and Cédric Maurange find that the loss of regeneration potential in Drosophila wing imaginal discs is induced by the production of the steroid hormone ecdysone after the larva reaches its critical weight. Manipulating ecdysone signaling or the downstream transcription factors can uncouple regenerative properties from developmental progression.

Image credit: pbio.3000149

Ecdysone Turns Off Regeneration

02/13/2019

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Eat, Sleep, Rave, Repeat...

Genetic experiments in fruit flies, by Maria Yurgel, Alex Keene and co-authors, identify a single pair of neurons in the lateral horn of the brain that express the neuromodulator leucokinin and are required for the integration of sleep and feeding states.

Eat, Sleep, Rave, Repeat...

Image credit: pbio.2006409

02/12/2019

Perspective

The Future of Scientific Publishing?

Bodo Stern and Erin O’Shea propose new practices for scientific publishing that align better with today's digital environment than do legacy practices. In a separate article, Björn Brembs asserts that the most prestigious journals publish the least reliable science, and asks how long we can afford to reward scientists for publishing there.

The Future of Scientific Publishing?

Image credit: congerdesign, Pixabay

02/11/2019

Research Article

Making New X-Chromosomes

A study of Drosophila species with independently formed sex chromosomes, by Chris Ellison and Doris Bachtrog, reveals that diverse mutational paths are utilized to evolve hundreds of de novo binding motifs for the dosage compensation complex; the “genomic environment” is an important determinant in the outcome of evolutionary adaptations.

Making New X-Chromosomes

Image credit: pbio.3000094

02/13/2019

Unsolved Mystery

lncRNAs: p53’s Secret Weapon?

Emily Dangelmaier, Sarah Lazar and Ashish Lal explore mechanisms by which long noncoding RNAs might regulate such a subset downstream of p53, a well-studied transcription factor and major tumor suppressor.

lncRNAs: p53’s Secret Weapon?

Image credit: RCSB PDB

02/07/2019

Short Reports

What Does a Fish See in the Mirror?

A marine fish, the cleaner wrasse, appears to perform all the appropriate behavioural responses during the mirror, or mark test. Does this mean that cleaner wrasse are self-conscious? Read the accompanying Primer.

What Does a Fish See in the Mirror?

Image credit: Alex Jordan

02/04/2019

Research Article

Gram-Negative Quorum-Sensing

Many Gram-negative bacteria communicate using quorum-sensing autoinducers called DSFs. Structure-function studies in Burkholderia reveal the interaction of a DSF with its receptor as well as the interaction of the receptor with the DSF synthase.

Gram-Negative Quorum-Sensing

Image credit: pbio.3000123

02/04/2019

Research Article

Fewer Bacteria & Archaea than we Thought?

 A massive survey of Earth's bacteria and archaea reveals that their diversity is orders of magnitude lower than previously thought. The study also indicates that extinctions played an important role in prokaryotic evolution. 

Fewer Bacteria & Archaea than we Thought?

Image credit: qimono, Pixabay

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