Ethical Publishing Practice

The following policies apply to all PLOS journals, unless otherwise noted.


All PLOS journals are members of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), abide by its Code of Conduct, and aim to adhere to its Best Practice Guidelines

Authors, editors, and reviewers are expected to be aware of, and comply with, best practice in publication ethics.

  • Authors are expected to be aware of, and comply with, best practice in publication ethics specifically but not limited to authorship (for example avoidance of ghost or guest authorship), dual submission, plagiarism, manipulation of figures, competing interests and compliance with policies on research ethics. Details are provided below or in related documents

  • Reviewers and editors are required to treat manuscripts fairly and in confidence, and to declare any competing interests.

We will vigorously investigate allegations of research or publication misconduct whether raised by anonymous or non-anonymous parties, and we protect the confidentiality of whistleblowers where possible. We reserve the right to contact authors’ institutions, funders or regulatory bodies if needed, in accordance with COPE guidelines.

In cases of suspected or alleged misconduct, or when scientific concerns are raised, we will follow up on the concerns as per COPE guidance regardless of the article's publication date, and we may also seek advice at a COPE forum. For cases involving data or image concerns the original data underlying the result(s) in question may be requested. We will take steps to correct or clarify the scientific record if necessary, which may include issuing a correction, expression of concern, or retraction per COPE guidelines.

If you have any concerns about potential misconduct, please email the journal. Address correspondence to the journal’s Editor-in-Chief, Chief Editor, or Editorial Director as appropriate. Concerned readers should not rely solely on posting their comments on blogs, social media or other third party websites to make us aware of concerns, but should ensure to contact the journal directly.

Additional resources on publication ethics are available from COPE and WAME. Read Chinese translations of COPE’s resources and guidelines.​


Plagiarism is not acceptable in PLOS submissions. Plagiarized content will not be considered for publication. If plagiarism is identified, we will follow COPE guidelines.

Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to:

  • Directly copying text from other sources without attribution
  • Copying ideas, images, or data from other sources without attribution
  • Reusing text from your own previous publications without attribution or agreement of the editor (read the COPE guidelines on text recycling)
    • Exception: Reusing text from the Methods section in the author’s previous publications, with attribution to the source, is acceptable.
  • Using an idea from another source with slightly modified language without attribution

PLOS uses Crossref Similarity Check (powered by iThenticate) to screen submitted content for originality. Each journal screens a proportion of manuscripts. We will do a follow-up investigation if the software raises any concerns.

If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, we may issue a correction or retract the paper, as appropriate. We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions about plagiarism detected either before or after publication. 

We expect that editors and reviewers will be vigilant in their evaluation of PLOS submissions and will notify the journal about any plagiarism identified.


We are committed to ensuring the integrity of the peer review process, in accordance with COPE guidelines. All submitted material should be treated as strictly confidential until published.

The peer review process is confidential to all parties. Correspondence as part of the review process is also to be treated confidentially by all parties, including authors.

Authors may provide basic details about the nature of the research presented in manuscripts currently under review.

Editors and reviewers are required to treat all submitted manuscripts in strict confidence and should not share information about submissions with any other parties unless previously agreed with the editor. The involvement of a third party in the review must be declared at the time of the submission of the review.

We expect that editors and reviewers will not make use of any material or take advantage of any information they gain through the peer review process.

We will follow up on any and all breaches of confidentiality. If there are any concerns about misconduct during the review process, we will follow COPE guidelines in investigating them.


Reviewers may identify themselves by signing their names at the time reviews are submitted, if they wish.

Submission and Publication of Related Studies

Author requirements

Upon submission of a manuscript, authors must indicate whether there are any related manuscripts under consideration or published elsewhere. If related work has been submitted or published elsewhere, authors must include a copy of it with their submission and describe its relation to the submitted work.

Prior publication of research as a thesis, presentation at medical or scientific conferences, or posting on preprint servers will not preclude consideration of your manuscript.

PLOS supports the public disclosure of all clinical trial results, as mandated, for example, by the 2007 FDA Amendments Act. Prior disclosure of results on a clinical trial registry site will not affect consideration.

Editor and reviewer requirements

Reviewers and editors should evaluate any related content and notify the journal of overlap. Editors and reviewers should alert the journal if they identify duplicate submissions or publications during the review process.

Policy enforcement

If related content is found to be too similar to the PLOS submission, or if a duplicate submission is discovered, we will reject the manuscript.

Duplicate content discovered after publication will be addressed depending on the degree of overlap. The journal may issue a correction or a retraction as appropriate.

Figure Preparation

Image files should not be manipulated or adjusted in any way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information present in the original image. Read more about image manipulation.

Biosecurity and Dual Use Research of Concern

We recognize that certain research may fall into the category of “dual use research of concern.” This is defined by the National Security Advisory Board for Biosecurity as any "biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biologic threat to public health and/or national security."1

PLOS staff and Editorial Boards are committed to the widespread dissemination of research while being sensitive to the issues of responsible publication standards. In this context, we assess the risks and benefits of publishing the research. If the risks outweigh the benefits, we will not publish it.

Author requirements

Authors are obligated to disclose potential bioethics/dual use concerns to the journal office at the time of initial submission.

Editor and reviewer requirements

Editors and reviewers are expected to evaluate potential risks and alert the journal with any concerns.

Policy enforcement

We follow standards set by national and public agencies and we work with these agencies to verify potential risks. We may also refer concerns to the PLOS Dual Use Committee for further deliberation.

Manuscripts are checked at submission for any potential risks. Issues identified at submission may lead to rejection of the manuscript.

If risks are identified after publication of an article, we will take steps to minimize that risk in accordance with prevailing guidelines. We will follow up with authors’ institutions depending on the severity of the issues.

Research Conducted by PLOS

In our efforts to improve the peer review system and scientific communication, we have an ongoing research program on the processes we use in the course of manuscript handling at the PLOS journals. If you are a reviewer, author or editor at PLOS, and you wish to opt out of this research, please contact the relevant journal office. Participation does not affect the editorial consideration of submitted manuscripts, nor PLOS' policies relating to confidentiality of authors, reviewers or manuscripts.

Individual research projects will be subject to appropriate ethical consideration and approval and if necessary individuals will be contacted for specific consent to participate.