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Table of Contents

May 2020

As the world struggles to grapple with the COVID-19 pandemic, political and health leaders have turned a critical eye towards the World Health Organization and its handling of the outbreak. It has long been apparent that the massive remit and governance structure, along with reliance on funding from multiple entities with often competing priorities can handcuff the agency in situations where swift decisive action is needed most. However, politically motivated threats to withdraw funding, are likely to exacerbate, rather than alleviate, these issues.

In this month's Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors discuss WHO's role in pandemic responses, its capabilities and limitations, and the balance that governments must seek to both support and hold the agency accountable as an essential partner in promoting world health.

Image Credit: Clker-Free-Vector-Images, Pixabay

Editorial

Perspective

Antibody-based therapies for COVID-19: Can Europe move faster?

Michel D. Kazatchkine, Michel Goldman, Jean-Louis Vincent

Research Articles

Diagnostic accuracy of a novel tuberculosis point-of-care urine lipoarabinomannan assay for people living with HIV: A meta-analysis of individual in- and outpatient data

Tobias Broger, Mark P. Nicol, Rita Székely, Stephanie Bjerrum, Bianca Sossen, Charlotte Schutz, Japheth A. Opintan, Isik S. Johansen, Satoshi Mitarai, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Andrew D. Kerkhoff, Aurélien Macé, Stefano Ongarello, Graeme Meintjes, Claudia M. Denkinger, Samuel G. Schumacher

The association of innate and adaptive immunity, subclinical atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease in the Rotterdam Study: A prospective cohort study

Lana Fani, Kimberly D. van der Willik, Daniel Bos, Maarten J. G. Leening, Peter J. Koudstaal, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Rikje Ruiter, Bruno H. C. Stricker, Maryam Kavousi, M. Arfan Ikram, M. Kamran Ikram

Multimorbidity, mortality, and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes: A cohort study with UK and Taiwanese cohorts

Jason I. Chiang, Peter Hanlon, Tsai-Chung Li, Bhautesh Dinesh Jani, Jo-Anne Manski-Nankervis, John Furler, Cheng-Chieh Lin, Shing-Yu Yang, Barbara I. Nicholl, Sharmala Thuraisingam, Frances S. Mair

Mortality estimates by age and sex among persons living with HIV after ART initiation in Zambia using electronic medical records supplemented with tracing a sample of lost patients: A cohort study

Andrew D. Kerkhoff, Kombatende Sikombe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Izukanji Sikazwe, David V. Glidden, Jake M. Pry, Paul Somwe, Laura K. Beres, Sandra Simbeza, Chanda Mwamba, Chama Bukankala, Cardinal Hantuba, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Charles B. Holmes, Nancy Padian, Elvin H. Geng

Health profile of adult special immigrant visa holders arriving from Iraq and Afghanistan to the United States, 2009–2017: A cross-sectional analysis

Gayathri S. Kumar, Simone S. Wien, Christina R. Phares, Walid Slim, Heather M. Burke, Emily S. Jentes

Risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with HIV infection: A nationwide cohort study

Casper Rokx, Jaime F. Borjas Howard, Colette Smit, Ferdinand W. Wit, Elise D. Pieterman, Peter Reiss, Suzanne C. Cannegieter, Willem M. Lijfering, Karina Meijer, Wouter Bierman, Vladimir Tichelaar, Bart J. A. Rijnders, on behalf of the ATHENA observational HIV cohort

Quantification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by spectrophotometry: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Daniel A. Pfeffer, Benedikt Ley, Rosalind E. Howes, Patrick Adu, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Pooja Bansil, Yap Boum II, Marcelo Brito, Pimlak Charoenkwan, Archie Clements, Liwang Cui, Zeshuai Deng, Ochaka Julie Egesie, Fe Esperanza Espino, Michael E. von Fricken, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Yongshu He, Gisela Henriques, Wasif Ali Khan, Nimol Khim, Saorin Kim, Marcus Lacerda, Chanthap Lon, Asrat Hailu Mekuria, Didier Menard, Wuelton Monteiro, François Nosten, Nwe Nwe Oo, Sampa Pal, Duangdao Palasuwan, Sunil Parikh, Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, David J. Price, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Michelle E. Roh, David L. Saunders, Michele D. Spring, Inge Sutanto, Kamala Ley-Thriemer, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ari Winasti Satyagraha, Germana Bancone, Gonzalo J. Domingo, Ric N. Price

National and regional prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Lauren C. Ng, Anne Stevenson, Sreeja S. Kalapurakkel, Charlotte Hanlon, Soraya Seedat, Boniface Harerimana, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Karestan C. Koenen

Spatiotemporal trends and ecological determinants in maternal mortality ratios in 2,205 Chinese counties, 2010–2013: A Bayesian modelling analysis

Junming Li, Juan Liang, Jinfeng Wang, Zhoupeng Ren, Dian Yang, Yanping Wang, Yi Mu, Xiaohong Li, Mingrong Li, Yuming Guo, Jun Zhu

Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990–2017: A cohort study

Rohini Mathur, Ruth E. Farmer, Sophie V. Eastwood, Nish Chaturvedi, Ian Douglas, Liam Smeeth

Preoperative risk stratification in endometrial cancer (ENDORISK) by a Bayesian network model: A development and validation study

Casper Reijnen, Evangelia Gogou, Nicole C. M. Visser, Hilde Engerud, Jordache Ramjith, Louis J. M. van der Putten, Koen van de Vijver, Maria Santacana, Peter Bronsert, Johan Bulten, Marc Hirschfeld, Eva Colas, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Armando Reques, Gemma Mancebo, Camilla Krakstad, Jone Trovik, Ingfrid S. Haldorsen, Jutta Huvila, Martin Koskas, Vit Weinberger, Marketa Bednarikova, Jitka Hausnerova, Anneke A. M. van der Wurff, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Frederic Amant, ENITEC Consortium, Leon F. A. G. Massuger, Marc P. L. M. Snijders, Heidi V. N. Küsters-Vandevelde, Peter J. F. Lucas, Johanna M. A. Pijnenborg

Risk of severe maternal morbidity or death in relation to elevated hemoglobin A1c preconception, and in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study

Alexander J. F. Davidson, Alison L. Park, Howard Berger, Kazuyoshi Aoyama, Ziv Harel, Jocelynn L. Cook, Joel G. Ray

Sugary drink warnings: A meta-analysis of experimental studies

Anna H. Grummon, Marissa G. Hall

Amino acid and lipid metabolism in post-gestational diabetes and progression to type 2 diabetes: A metabolic profiling study

Mi Lai, Ying Liu, Gabriele V. Ronnett, Anne Wu, Brian J. Cox, Feihan F. Dai, Hannes L. Röst, Erica P. Gunderson, Michael B. Wheeler

Safety and continued use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system as compared with the copper intrauterine device among women living with HIV in South Africa: A randomized controlled trial

Catherine S. Todd, Heidi E. Jones, Nontokozo Langwenya, Donald R. Hoover, Pai-Lien Chen, Gregory Petro, Landon Myer

Antibody and cellular responses to HIV vaccine regimens with DNA plasmid as compared with ALVAC priming: An analysis of two randomized controlled trials

Zoe Moodie, Stephen R. Walsh, Fatima Laher, Lucas Maganga, Michael E. Herce, Sarita Naidoo, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Craig Innes, Linda-Gail Bekker, Nicole Grunenberg, Philipp Mann, Chenchen Yu, Allan C. deCamp, Maurine D. Miner, Nicole L. Yates, Jack Heptinstall, Nonhlanhla N. Mkhize, One Dintwe, Nicole Frahm, Kristen W. Cohen, Mary Allen, Julia Hutter, Ralf Wagner, Giuseppe Pantaleo, M. Juliana McElrath, Georgia D. Tomaras, Lynn Morris, David C. Montefiori, Erica Andersen-Nissen, Glenda E. Gray, Peter B. Gilbert, James G. Kublin, the NIAID HVTN 100 and HVTN 111 trial teams

Variations in use of childbirth interventions in 13 high-income countries: A multinational cross-sectional study

Anna E. Seijmonsbergen-Schermers, Thomas van den Akker, Eva Rydahl, Katrien Beeckman, Annick Bogaerts, Lorena Binfa, Lucy Frith, Mechthild M. Gross, Björn Misselwitz, Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir, Deirdre Daly, Paul Corcoran, Jean Calleja-Agius, Neville Calleja, Miriam Gatt, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen, Eugene Declercq, Mika Gissler, Anna Heino, Helena Lindgren, Ank de Jonge