About the Authors

D. Thomas Rutkowski

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Stacey M Arnold

Address ¤ Current address: Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corey N Miller

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jun Wu

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jack Li

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Kathryn M Gunnison

Affiliation Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Kazutoshi Mori

Affiliation Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Amir A. Sadighi Akha

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

David Raden

Affiliation Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America

Randal J Kaufman

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kaufmanr@umich.edu

Affiliations Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America , Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America , Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DTR conceived and designed the experiments. DTR, SMA, CNM, JW, JL, KMG, and AASA performed the experiments. DTR and RJK analyzed the data. KM contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DTR and RJK wrote the paper. DR constructed the mathematical model.