About the Authors

D. Thomas Rutkowski, Randal J Kaufman
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Stacey M Arnold, Corey N Miller, Jun Wu, Jack Li, Kathryn M Gunnison, Randal J Kaufman
Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Kazutoshi Mori
Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Amir A. Sadighi Akha
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

David Raden
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America

Randal J Kaufman
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Author

kaufmanr@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

DTR conceived and designed the experiments. DTR, SMA, CNM, JW, JL, KMG, and AASA performed the experiments. DTR and RJK analyzed the data. KM contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. DTR and RJK wrote the paper. DR constructed the mathematical model.