Advertisement

Table of Contents: June 2017

Myelin is formed by the wrapping of glial cell membranes around axons and is required for the fast conduction of nerve impulses and to support axons. In the peripheral nervous system, myelin is produced by Schwann cells, and defects in peripheral myelin can cause debilitating diseases whose molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. This study by Ghidinelli et al. reveals how two crucial extracellular modulators of myelin formation—neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211)—work together in the peripheral nervous system. Although Lm211 was believed to promote myelination, the authors show here that it can also inhibit myelin formation by suppressing the activity of Nrg1III, limiting the activation of its downstream signaling cascade. These results help to explain why certain inherited neuropathies are characterized by hypermyelination and redundant myelin sheaths. The image shows myelin formed in vitro by Schwann cells when co-cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons for this study.

Image Credit: Angelo Quattrini and Paola Podini, San Raffaele Scientific Institute

Perspective

Identifiers for the 21st century: How to design, provision, and reuse persistent identifiers to maximize utility and impact of life science data

Julie A. McMurry, Nick Juty, Niklas Blomberg, Tony Burdett, Tom Conlin, Nathalie Conte, Mélanie Courtot, John Deck, Michel Dumontier, Donal K. Fellows, Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran, Philipp Gormanns, Jeffrey Grethe, Janna Hastings, Jean-Karim Hériché, Henning Hermjakob, Jon C. Ison, Rafael C. Jimenez, Simon Jupp, John Kunze, Camille Laibe, Nicolas Le Novère, James Malone, Maria Jesus Martin, Johanna R. McEntyre, Chris Morris, Juha Muilu, Wolfgang Müller, Philippe Rocca-Serra, Susanna-Assunta Sansone, Murat Sariyar, Jacky L. Snoep, Stian Soiland-Reyes, Natalie J. Stanford, Neil Swainston, Nicole Washington, Alan R. Williams, Sarala M. Wimalaratne, Lilly M. Winfree, Katherine Wolstencroft, Carole Goble, Christopher J. Mungall, Melissa A. Haendel, Helen Parkinson

Research Articles

Family living sets the stage for cooperative breeding and ecological resilience in birds

Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Related Articles

  1. What drives cooperative breeding?

Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

Ryan M. Hull, Cristina Cruz, Carmen V. Jack, Jonathan Houseley

Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe

François Blanquart, Chris Wymant, Marion Cornelissen, Astrid Gall, Margreet Bakker, Daniela Bezemer, Matthew Hall, Mariska Hillebregt, Swee Hoe Ong, Jan Albert, Norbert Bannert, Jacques Fellay, Katrien Fransen, Annabelle J. Gourlay, M. Kate Grabowski, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Huldrych F. Günthard, Pia Kivelä, Roger Kouyos, Oliver Laeyendecker, Kirsi Liitsola, Laurence Meyer, Kholoud Porter, Matti Ristola, Ard van Sighem, Guido Vanham, Ben Berkhout, Paul Kellam, Peter Reiss, Christophe Fraser, BEEHIVE collaboration

Related Articles

  1. Correction: Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe

Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

Seongmin A. Park, Sidney Goïame, David A. O'Connor, Jean-Claude Dreher

Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training

Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Kexin Cha, Anna Byers, John T. Serences

Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

Stephen M. Town, W. Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K. Bizley

CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning

Georgia Koppe, Anne Stephanie Mallien, Stefan Berger, Dusan Bartsch, Peter Gass, Barbara Vollmayr, Daniel Durstewitz

MAIT cells launch a rapid, robust and distinct hyperinflammatory response to bacterial superantigens and quickly acquire an anergic phenotype that impedes their cognate antimicrobial function: Defining a novel mechanism of superantigen-induced immunopathology and immunosuppression

Christopher R. Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T. Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A. Szabo, Mauro E. Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J. Corbett, James McCluskey, John K. McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S.M. Mansour Haeryfar

Related Articles

  1. Bacterial deception of MAIT cells in a cloud of superantigen and cytokines

Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1

Manisha Juneja, Dennis Kobelt, Wolfgang Walther, Cynthia Voss, Janice Smith, Edgar Specker, Martin Neuenschwander, Björn-Oliver Gohlke, Mathias Dahlmann, Silke Radetzki, Robert Preissner, Jens Peter von Kries, Peter Michael Schlag, Ulrike Stein

Phosphatidylserine externalization, “necroptotic bodies” release, and phagocytosis during necroptosis

Sefi Zargarian, Inbar Shlomovitz, Ziv Erlich, Aria Hourizadeh, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Ben A. Croker, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Liat Edry-Botzer, Motti Gerlic

High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance

Morgan A. Wambaugh, Viplendra P. S. Shakya, Adam J. Lewis, Matthew A. Mulvey, Jessica C. S. Brown

Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

Monica Ghidinelli, Yannick Poitelon, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dominique Ameroso, Courtney Williamson, Cinzia Ferri, Marta Pellegatta, Kevin Espino, Amit Mogha, Kelly Monk, Paola Podini, Carla Taveggia, Klaus-Armin Nave, Lawrence Wrabetz, Hwan Tae Park, Maria Laura Feltri

Human cyclophilin 40 unravels neurotoxic amyloids

Jeremy D. Baker, Lindsey B. Shelton, Dali Zheng, Filippo Favretto, Bryce A. Nordhues, April Darling, Leia E. Sullivan, Zheying Sun, Parth K. Solanki, Mackenzie D. Martin, Amirthaa Suntharalingam, Jonathan J. Sabbagh, Stefan Becker, Eckhard Mandelkow, Vladimir N. Uversky, Markus Zweckstetter, Chad A. Dickey, John Koren III, Laura J. Blair

Meta-Research Article

Can cancer researchers accurately judge whether preclinical reports will reproduce?

Daniel Benjamin, David R. Mandel, Jonathan Kimmelman