About the Authors

Anoop D. Shah, Owen Nicholas, Harry Hemingway
Clinical Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Anoop D. Shah
Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

Adam D. Timmis
Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Gene Feder
Academic Unit of Primary Health Care, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Keith R. Abrams
Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Ruoling Chen
Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

Aroon D. Hingorani
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

anoop@doctors.org.uk

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: ADS ON ADT GF KRA RC ADH HH. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: ADS ON ADT GF KRA RC ADH HH. Designed the experiments/the study: ADS ADT GF RC HH. Analyzed the data: ADS ON ADT RC. Collected data/did experiments for the study: RC. Wrote the first draft of the paper: ADS. Contributed to the writing of the paper: ADS ON ADT GF KRA RC ADH HH. Developed the fractional polynomials with thresholds model and implemented the MCMC: ON. Advised on statistical analysis of data and subsequent interpretation: KRA. Co-applicant on the grant which partially funded the work: ADH. Supervised study, secured external grant funding: HH.