Resilience of Natural Gas Networks during Conflicts, Crises and Disruptions
(A) A scenario is named after the country that is hypothetically removed from the network, and coloured in blue (orange) if the country is removed from the present (future) baseline scenario. (B) The country removed per scenario is coloured cyan (red) on the map, if it is an exporting (transit) country. The total network throughput increases by from the present baseline to the future baseline scenario ( i.e., when the future and planned pipelines are added to the present network). The most challenging scenarios are the hypothetical removal of Russia, followed by Ukraine, the Netherlands and LNG. When Russia is removed from the network, the global network throughput falls by relative to the present baseline and by in relation to the future baseline. Figure created from authors' data with ESRI ArcGIS.