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Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007

Figure 6

Ranking of maternal mortality ratios (MMR) in the American continent for 2008.

Official MMR for Chile [45] is compared to official World Health Organization (WHO) estimates [35] on other American countries, except for those with asterisks. *Official domestic data for Canada [43], [44], Chile [45], United States [46], [47], Costa Rica [48], Cuba [49], Argentina [50], Mexico [51], [52] and Colombia [53], [54]. An important overestimation for these countries is observed when comparing WHO estimates to official domestic data. For instance, according to official data available for the U.S., 795 maternal deaths [47] and 4,247,694 live births [46] occurred in 2008. In consequence, the MMR for the U.S. that year was 18.7 per 100,000 live births. For Chile, the MMR was 16.5 per 100,000 live births (41 maternal deaths and 248,366 live births [45]). The same figure, but using indirect estimates for MMR reported by WHO [35] was 24 per 100,000 live births for the U.S. and 26 per 100,000 live births for Chile. In consequence, there is an overestimation of 28.3% for the U.S. and 57.6% for Chile in the WHO report. ** Data extracted from the study by Hogan et al. [3]

Figure 6

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036613.g006