Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions.
We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies.
We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.
Citation: Danovaro R, Fonda Umani S, Pusceddu A (2009) Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE 4(9): e7006. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006
Editor: Zoe Finkel, Mt. Alison University, Canada
Received: June 23, 2009; Accepted: July 27, 2009; Published: September 16, 2009
Copyright: © 2009 Danovaro et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work has been funded by the SESAME project (EU Contract No. GOCE-2006-036949). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Marine snow (i.e., amorphous aggregates with a size ranging from a few millimetres to several metres) is ubiquitous in the oceans of the World . Water column stratification under summer conditions favours the progressive coalescence of small-sized aggregates into large massive sheets, thin layers, flocs and clouds, which are collectively known as marine mucilage . Mucilage is a gelatinous evolving stage of marine snow (Figure 1), which can reach huge dimensions and cover areas of hundreds of kilometres of coastline –.
Image of mucilage in surface off-shore waters (A) and in an advanced stage of coalescence, after sampling (B).
Mucilage is made of exopolymeric compounds with highly colloidal properties that are released by marine organisms  through different processes, including phytoplankton exudation of photosyntetically-derived carbohydrates produced under stressful conditions ,  (e.g., P-limited diatoms that produce large amounts of polysaccharides –) and through death and decomposition of cell-wall debris , . Such a release can be coupled with a limited ability of prokaryotes to hydrolyze these exopolymers by means of extracellular enzymes – leading to the release and accumulation of large molecular weight compounds in the system –. These processes can be associated with viral infections of prokaryotes and phytoplankton and the consequent cell lysis (viral shunt), which further contributes to release and accumulation of dissolved organic matter in the water column –. Whatever the causes triggering the formation of marine mucilage, this phenomenon has created increasing concern in coastal areas due to its socio-economical consequences.
Worldwide the highly productive and shallow Adriatic Sea (and particularly its Northern portion) within the Mediterranean basin is the area most severely affected by the outbreak of massive marine mucilage. Mucilage was reported here for the first time in 1729, and was originally described as a “dirty sea” phenomenon (“mare sporco”) because it causes the clogging of fishing nets . Since then, the presence of mucilage has been reported sporadically, but in the last three decades, the frequency of this phenomenon appears to have increased considerably . The presence of mucilage makes the seawater unsuitable for bathing because of the bad smell produced, and the adherence of the mucilage on the skin of bathers. Marine mucilage floating on the surface or in the water column can display a long life span (up to 2–3 months) and once settled on the sea bottom, these large aggregates coat the sediments, extending in certain cases for kms and causing hypoxic and/or anoxic conditions . The consequent suffocation of benthic organisms (including bottom-associated nekton)  provokes serious economical damage to tourism and fisheries .
In the present study we hypothesized that: i) marine mucilage can represent a new, though ephemeral, substrate for microbial colonization, including pathogenic forms, ii) increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to recent climate change and iii) increasing occurrence of marine mucilage can increase spreading of marine diseases.
Viruses and prokaryotes associated with marine mucilage
The microscopic analyses we conducted on samples of marine mucilage revealed the presence of huge prokaryotic and viral abundances (on average 3.76±2.53 106 cells and 1.11±0.26 109 viruses mL−1). Prokaryotic and viral abundances in mucilage were significantly higher (ANOVA P<0.001) than in surrounding seawater (Figure 2A). Molecular analyses demonstrated the presence of a huge bacterial diversity within the mucilage, with a number of ribotypes significantly higher (approximately double; ANOVA P<0.01) than in surrounding seawater (Figure 2B and 2C). The number of bacterial taxa encountered in the mucilage matrix contributed for ca 68% to the total number of bacterial taxa identified. We found that more than 90% of the bacterial taxa encountered in the mucilage were not found in the surrounding seawater.
(A) viral and prokaryotic abundance; (B) bacterial diversity (as OTU, Operational Taxonomic Units); (C) electropherograms of DNA extracted from a mucilage sample and surrounding seawater; (D) number of pathogens. Panel B illustrates diversity of bacterial assemblage: species in common are represented using the same colour. In Panel C, each peak corresponds to an interval of ±2 base pairs, is assumed to represent a different OTU, and the height of the peak is assumed to represent the quantity of each single OTU.
Molecular analyses based on fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that mucilage contained a large number of pathogenic bacteria (Figure 2D). The abundance of coliforms per unit of volume in marine mucilage per unit of volume was four orders of magnitude higher than in surrounding seawater, and Vibrio spp. were significantly more abundant than in the water column (ANOVA, p<0.01). The use of molecular fingerprinting techniques (ARISA) carried out both on mucilage and on the surrounding seawater provided evidence that mucilage aggregates not only entrap prokaryotes present in the water column, but also contain bacterial species (Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi), which were absent in surrounding seawater.
Frequency and distribution of mucilage outbreaks
Analysis of historical reports indicated that the frequency of the mucilage has increased almost exponentially in the last two decades in the Mediterranean Sea (Figure 3). Prior to 1920 mucilage events have been reported only in the Adriatic Sea. Since 1980 mucilage events were also reported from the Aegean, Northern and Tyrrhenian Seas. In the last 30 years the area with the highest number of mucilage outbreaks was the Adriatic Sea (n = 14) followed by the Tyrrhenian Sea (n = 11), and the Aegean Sea (n = 9).
The analysis of temperature anomalies over the last 60 years revealed that these have remained constantly positive since 1977 with values ranging from 0.097 (1986) to 0.524 (1998). Mucilage occurrence displayed a significant relationship (Spearman Rank correlation rs = 0.50, P<0.003; n = 34) with climate change (as temperature anomalies, annual average; www.cpc.noaa.gov) in the last 60 years.
Mucilage as potential carriers of marine diseases
Mucilage is able to entrap high abundances of a wide range of organisms from small phytoplankton to large zooplankton, and is capable of scavenging plankton and detrital particles suspended in the water column , . Our results provide evidence that marine mucilage is also a major repository for prokaryotes and viruses, which displayed a concentration factor (as ratio between abundance in mucilage: abundance in seawater per unit of volume) ranging from 103–104. No other organisms entrapped in the mucilage were as enriched. The huge abundance of prokaryotes and viruses within the mucilage could be due to the ability of these large aggregates to entrap into free-living viruses and prokaryotes from the water column. In addition the mucilage represents a source of organic molecules potentially utilizable for sustain prokaryotic metabolism and growth. Typically viral and prokaryotic abundances in aquatic systems co-vary . This also occurred in marine mucilage where a significant correlation between prokaryote and viral abundance was observed (Spearman-rank correlation, rs = 0.99; p<0.001). The values of the ratio of virus-to-prokaryotic abundance in the mucilage (always >17) were significantly higher than values typically reported for seawater , suggesting that mucilage can be characterized by a strong viral shunt with a much higher probability of virus-host contact than in surrounding seawater . Similar values have been recently reported for deep-benthic marine systems, where a viral shunt proved to be extremely important . The high viral abundance can influence prokaryotic dynamics by killing the prokaryotes and causing the release of particulate and dissolved organic material, which can then contribute to the renewal and persistence of the mucilage .
The use of fingerprinting techniques indicated that marine mucilage is also a hot spot of bacterial diversity. The number of ribotypes in the mucilage was on average ca 65% higher than in the surrounding seawater. Since mucilage can remain suspended in the seawater for months, it is possible that several prokaryotic species are released in areas far from their origin during dispersal of mucilage by currents.
Most known diseases affecting both marine invertebrate and vertebrates, such as those referred to as yellow blotch, dark spots, and the so-called rapid tissue necrosis, are only described for their symptoms and have not been characterized by their aetiology or pathogenesis . Detailed microbiological investigations of marine pathogens have been hampered previously by the difficulties in cultivating them. Only recently has the development of molecular methodologies allowed progress . In the present study, the use of molecular techniques such as the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the presence of a conspicuous number of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Vibrio harveyi) in the mucilage, but not in surrounding seawater, which have the potential to infect a wide range of organisms .
FISH analyses revealed also the presence of very high abundances of total Coliforms and E. coli, which are common indicators for the potential presence of pathogens. The presence of these bacteria in the aggregates suggests that mucilage could have potentially negative consequences on human health. The abundance of these bacteria are typically monitored in coastal environments as they are indicators of water quality and their presence above certain threshold levels limits recreational activities at sea. The ability of mucilage to potentially concentrate high abundances of pathogenic bacteria is consistent with the appearance of dermatitis and other syndromes associated to human contact with the mucilage .
Although the mechanisms by which the mucilage hosts large numbers of pathogens are not entirely clear, it might be hypothesized that the complex organic matrix of the mucilage offers micro-niches to pathogens with favourable conditions for their colonization and survival . Results reported here also suggest that if the expansion of the mucilage occurrence will continue in the future, it could be associated with increased outbreaks of diseases caused by the potential release of large numbers of pathogenic bacteria from the mucilage.
Mucilage and climate change
The analysis of historical reports in the Mediterranean Sea indicates that the occurrence of mucilage events is increasing and spreading to several regions beyond the Adriatic Sea, where it was documented for the first time. Mucilage is not closely associated with the presence of eutrophic conditions, as several mucilage outbreaks have been recently observed in oligotrophic seas, such as the Aegean Sea. Moreover, the frequency of mucilage outbreaks in the Adriatic Sea has increased in the last 2 decades concurrently with a significant decrease in primary production. Furthermore there is no correlation between the number of mucilage records per decade and the decadal mean of Po river annual discharge in the Adriatic Sea (Spearman rs = −0.333; not significant, data not shown). It therefore can be hypothesised that the expansion of mucilage outbreaks in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea (including coastal regions that have no previous records for this phenomenon, such as the Marmara Sea ) do not result from increased primary productivity of the system (i.e., eutrophication).
Although recent studies have suggested that a climatic shift occurred in 1987 in the Mediterranean (e.g. the so called East Mediterranean Transient  could have been responsible for a shift in ecosystem functioning ), the linkage between mucilage occurrence and climate change has been almost completely neglected. Our analysis based on a record of approximately 60 years of mucilage appearance in the Mediterranean Sea (1950–2008) has revealed that patterns of climate anomalies (e.g., the positive anomaly of the surface temperature) explained a large proportion of variance in mucilage outbreaks, on an annual and decadal basis (Figure 4).
Annual and decadal temperature anomalies were retrieved from www.cpc.noaa.gov. Records of mucilage appearance in the Mediterranean Sea are detailed in Text S1.
The hypothesis of a link between mucilage formation and climate-driven temperature anomalies is suggested by the apparent progressive extension of the duration of this phenomenon. In the Adriatic Sea, for instance, marine aggregates generally appear from May to July and evolve into mucilage through the Summer (with a peak in August). Recently (i.e., in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008), mucilage has appeared much earlier (first recorded in November/December and January, depending upon the area). The Winter 2006–2007 was the warmest over the last 30 years, with average temperatures up to 2–3°C above the previous mean temperatures (http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/s2798.htm), and the spatial extent and persistence of mucilage reached unprecedented levels. In March 2007, for instance, marine mucilage was seen to stretch along more than 2,500 km of the Italian coastline. Massive aggregates lasted, almost continuously, for more than five months. The last outbreaks have been reported in autumn of 2008. This tendency, however, needs to be monitored in the future for consistency.
The presence of temperature anomalies alone cannot be used to predict the occurrence of mucilage phenomenon on a basin scale because several other (local) factors may promote the mucilage formation and/or increases in the magnitude of this phenomenon including the hydrodynamic regime (i.e., current speed and water mass turnover), oxygen availability, and other factors. However, the link between climate anomalies and the occurrence of mucilage is evident and, in the light of the warming trend of the Mediterranean Sea , the mucilage phenomenon could increase in the future.
The coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea that are repeatedly affected by mucilage appearance share many common environmental problems. Most of these systems have a long history of human exploitation , , including over-fishing (which through trawling can be also responsible for the alteration of the benthic biogeochemical cycles) , presence of macro- and micro-pollutants (which can have a strong impact on microbial-loop functioning and cause the increase of viral infection  or the outbreak of microbial diseases  and altered ecosystem functioning. Perhaps the misuse of these coastal environments might exacerbate this phenomenon. Mucilage, in turn, can induce hypoxic phenomena and even promote extensive anoxia  resulting in a decreased production of “ecosystem goods and services”, and a lower ecosystem resiliency (ability to recover after adverse impacts).
If the mucilage phenomenon continuous to increase in frequency and duration, and to spread around the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea, an increased frequency and extension of some marine diseases may result with potential consequences to human health . In the past, the “Vibrio cholerae paradigm” has represented the first important example of the cascade effects of climate change on human health . Vibrio cholera, indeed, lives attached to the exoskeleton of marine copepods, which depend on phytoplankton blooms for their nutrition. These in turn are influenced by climate change . We propose mucilage as a potentially novel paradigm of the ecosystem alteration caused by the synergistic effect of climate change and misuse of marine resources. Mucilage on one hand represents symptomatic response of the marine ecosystem to direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts, and on the other a potentially expanding carrier of viruses and bacteria, including pathogenic forms that are harmful for the health of humans and marine organisms.
Samples of seawater and mucilage were collected from coastal waters of the Adriatic Sea in 2007 by means of sterilized Niskin bottles and by 100 mL syringes operate by SCUBA divers, respectively. Fifty mL each of mucilage and seawater were immediately stored at −20°C for subsequent viral and prokaryotic counts (within 48 h). Additional water samples were filtered on 0.2-µm pore-size polycarbonate filters and immediately processed together with fresh mucilage samples for DNA extraction.
Viral and prokaryotic abundance and biodiversity in seawater and mucilage
Viral and prokaryotic abundances were determined by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR Green I and normalised to mL of seawater or mucilage .
Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) was carried out on seawater and mucilage samples. DNA was extracted from mucilage samples (ca. 1 mL) by means of the UltraClean Soil DNA Isolation kit (MoBio Laboratoires Inc., California, USA) . Extracted DNA was determined fluorometrically using SYBR Green I (Molecular Probes, USA) and quantified using standard solutions of genomic DNA from E. coli . The DNA was then amplified using universal bacterial primers 16S-1392F (5′-GYACACACCGCCCGT-3′) and 23S-125R (5′-GGGTTBCCCCATTCRG-3′), which amplify the bacterial ITS1 region in the rRNA operon plus ca. 282 bases of the 16S and 23S rRNA. The reverse primer 23S-125R was fluorescently labelled with the fluorochrome HEX (MWGspa BIOTECH). PCR reactions were performed in 50-µl volumes in a thermalcycler (Biometra, Germany) using the MasterTaq® kit (Eppendorf AG, Germany). 30 PCR-cycles were used, consisting of 94°C for 1 minute, 55°C for 1 minute and 72°C for 2 minute, preceded by 3 minutes of denaturation at 94°C, followed by a final extension of 10 minutes at 72°C. To check for eventual contamination of the PCR reagents, negative controls containing the PCR-reaction mixture but without the DNA template were run during each PCR analysis. Positive controls, containing genomic DNA of Escherichia coli, were also used. PCR-products were checked on agarose-TBE gel (1%), containing ethidium bromide for DNA staining and visualization. For each mucilage sample, two different PCR reactions were run and then pooled together to minimize stochastic PCR biases. This process was carried out in duplicate, for a total of 4 different PCR reactions for each sample. The two resulting PCR combined products were then purified using the Wizard PCR clean-up system (Promega, Wisconsin, USA), resuspended in 50 µl of milliQ water supplied with the clean-up system and then quantified spectrofluorimetrically as described above. For each ARISA analysis, about 5 ng of amplicons were mixed with 14 µl of internal size standard (GS2500-ROX; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) in deionized formamide, then denatured at 94°C for 2 minutes and immediately chilled in ice. Automated detection of ARISA fragments was carried out using an ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). ARISA fragments in the range 390–1400 bp were determined using Genescan analytical software 2.02 (ABI). Bacterial phylotype/genotype richness was expressed as the total number of peaks within each electropherogram.
Identification of pathogens by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)
For the detection and enumeration of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (i.e. total Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. and Vibrio harveyi) we used the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) technique targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA. From each sample, ca. 1 mL of each mucilage sample was fixed in replicate in a 1∶1 sterile solution of PBS:ethanol and sonicated three times. Aliquots of each sample were then properly diluted and filtered through 0.2 µm black polycarbonate filters (Nuclepore). The filters were then hybridized using Cy3-labeled probes under appropriate hybridization condition for each probe and washed using appropriate washing buffers. Then, each filter was counterstained with DAPI (0.5 µg mL−1), mounted onto microscopic slides and observed under epifluorescence microscopy. We used the probes “D”, Colinsitu, GV, VH-2 for counting Total Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Vibrio harveyi, respectively.
Historical data collection and statistical analyses
For the purposes of this research, we searched for mucilage and macro-aggregate (>500 µm in size) records in oceans worldwide in published literature (Sciencedirect, ASFA). The research for mucilage records was also extended to include the whole of the Internet, to identify events not documented in scientific papers (Table S1). Annual mean data on Po river discharge (1990–2007) in the Adriatic Sea have been extracted from the Hydrological Annales of the Regional Agency for Prevention and Climate of the Emilia Romagna Region (www.arpa.emr.it).
Quantitative differences in microbial variables between mucilage and seawater samples were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The type of substrate (mucilage vs. seawater) was treated as a fixed factor with two levels and significant differences were also assessed using a post-hoc Student-Newman-Kuels' test (SNK). ANOVA and SNK tests were carried out using the software GMAV 5.0 (University of Sidney, Australia). The relationships between microbial variables within mucilage samples and within seawater were tested using a Spearman-rank correlation analysis.
List of the records of the appearance of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea and specific geographic locations.
(0.08 MB DOC)
This file contains all info collected on historical events of mucilage appearance in the Mediterranean Sea.
(0.07 MB DOC)
Authors are grateful to G.M. Luna for support in the analyses of molecular fingerprinting and to C. Corinaldesi (Polytechnic University of Marche) for useful suggestions. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for precious comments on the manuscript.
Conceived and designed the experiments: RD AP. Performed the experiments: RD AP. Analyzed the data: RD AP. Wrote the paper: RD SFU AP.
- 1. Simon M, Grossart HP, Schweitzer B, Ploug H (2002) Microbial ecology of organic aggregates in aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 28: 175–211.
- 2. Precali R, Giani M, Marini M, Grilli F, Ferrari CR, et al. (2005) Mucilaginous aggregates in the Northern Adriatic in the period 1999–2002: typology and distribution. Science of the Total Environment 353: 10–23.
- 3. Herndl GJ, Peduzzi P (1988) Ecology of amorphous aggregations (marine snow) in the Northern Adriatic sea: I general considerations. PSZNI Marine Ecology 9: 79–90.
- 4. Giani M, Cicero AM, Savelli F, Bruno M, Donati G, et al. (1992) Marine snow in the Adriatic Sea: A multifactorial study. Science of the Total Environment (suppl.)539– 550.
- 5. Herndl GJ (1992) Marine snow in northern Adriatic Sea: possible causes and consequences for a shallow ecosystem. Marine Microbial Food Webs 6: 149–172.
- 6. Fogg GE (1995) Some speculations on the nature of the pelagic mucilage community of the northern Adriatic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 165: 59–63.
- 7. Leppard GG (1995) The characterization of algal and microbial mucilages and their aggregates in aquatic ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 165: 103–131.
- 8. Fonda Umani S, Milani L, Borme D, de Olazabal A, Parlato S, et al. (2005) Inter-annual variations of planktonic food webs in the northern Adriatic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 353: 218–231.
- 9. Degobbis D, Fonda Umani S, Franco P, Malej A, Precali R, et al. (1995) Changes in the northern Adriatic ecosystem and hypertrophic appearance of gelatinous aggregates. Science of the Total Environment 165: 43–58.
- 10. Myklestad S (1977) Production of carbohydrates by marine planktonic diatoms. II Influence of the N/P ratio in the growth medium on the assimilation ratio, growth rate, and production of cellular and extracellular carbohydrates by Chaetoceros affinis var. Willei (Gran) Hustedt and Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 29: 161–179.
- 11. Kaltenbock E, Herndl GJ (1992) Ecology of amorphous aggregations (marine snow) in the Northern Adriatic Sea. IV. Dissolved nutrients and the autotrophic community associated with marine snow. Marine Ecology Progress Series 87: 147–158.
- 12. Malej A, Harris RP (1993) Inhibition of copepod grazing by diatom exudates: A factor in the development of mucus aggregates? Marine Ecology Progress Series 96: 33–42.
- 13. Monti M, Welker C, Dellavalle G, Casaretto L, Fonda Umani S (1995) Mucous aggregates under natural and laboratory conditions: a review. Science of the Total Environment 165: 145–154.
- 14. Schuster S, Herndl GJ (1995) Formation and significance of transparent exopolymeric particles in the northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 124: 227–236.
- 15. Posedel N, Faganeli J (1991) Nature and sedimentation of suspended particulate matter during density stratification in shallow coastal waters (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic). Marine Ecology Progress Series 77: 135–145.
Sellner KG, Fonda Umani S (1999) Dinoflagellate Blooms and Mucilage Production. In: Malone TC, Malej A, Harding LW Jr, Smodlaka N, Turner RE, editors. Chapter 6.Coastal and Eustarine Studies. 55. : 173–206.
- 17. Muller-Niklas G, Schuster S, Kaltenbock E, Herndl GJ (1994) Organic content and bacterial metabolism in amorphous aggregations of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 39: 58–68.
- 18. Obernosterer I, Herndl GJ (1995) Phytoplankton extracellular release and bacterial growth: Dependence on the inorganic N∶P ratio. Marine Ecology Progress Series 116: 247–257.
- 19. Heissenberger A, Herndl GJ (1994) Formation of high molecular weight material by free-living marine bacteria. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111: 128–135.
- 20. Heissenberger A, Leppard GC, Herndl GJ (1996) Ultrastructure of marine snow. II. Microbiological considerations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135: 299–308.
- 21. Azam F, Long RA (2001) Sea snow microcosms. Nature 414: 495–498.
- 22. Pajdak-Stós A, Fialkowska E, Fyda J (2001) Phormidium autumnale (Cyanobacteria) defense against three ciliate grazer species. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 23: 237–244.
- 23. Corinaldesi C, Crevatin E, Del Negro P, Marini M, Russo A, et al. (2003) Large-scale spatial distribution of virioplankton in the Adriatic Sea: testing the trophic state control hypothesis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 2664–2673.
- 24. Danovaro R, Armeni M, Luna GM, Corinaldesi C, Dell'Anno A, et al. (2005) Exo-enzymatic activities and dissolved organic pools in relation with mucilage development in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 353: 189–203.
- 25. Azam F, Fonda Umani S, Funari E (1999) Significance of bacteria in the mucilage phenomenon in the northern Adriatic Sea. Annali Istituto Superiore di Sanità 35: 411–419.
- 26. Fonda Umani S, Del Negro P, Larato C, De Vittor C, Cabrini M, et al. (2007) Major inter-annual variations in microbial dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea) and their ecosystem implications. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 46: 163–175.
- 27. Peduzzi P, Weinbauer MG (1993) Effect of concentrating the virus-rich 2–200-µm size fraction of seawater on the formation of algal flocs (marine snow). Limnology and Oceanography 38: 1562–1565.
- 28. Weinbauer M, Peduzzi P (1995) Significance of viruses versus heterotrophic nanoflagellates for controlling bacterial abundance in the northern Adriatic Sea. Journal of Plankton Research 17: 1851–1854.
- 29. Weinbauer M, Fuks D, Puskaric S, Peduzzi P (1995) Diel, seasonal, and depth-related variability of viruses and dissolved DNA in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Microbial Ecology 30: 25–41.
- 30. Baldi F, Minacci A, Saliot A, Mejanelle L, Mozetic P, et al. (1997) Cell lysis and release of particulate polysaccharides in extensive marine mucilage assessed by lipid biomarkers and molecular probes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 153: 45–57.
- 31. Shibata A, Kogure K, Koike I, Ohwada K (2007) Formation of submicron colloidal particles from marine bacteria by viral infection. Marine Ecology Progress Series 155: 303–307.
Fonda Umani S, Ghirardelli E, Specchi M (1989) Gli episodi di “mare sporco” nell'Adriatico dal 1729 ai giorni nostri. 178 p. Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Direzione Regionale Ambiente (ed.).
- 33. Rinaldi A, Vollenweider RA, Montanari G, Ferrari CR, Ghetti A (1995) Mucilages in Italian seas: the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas, 1988–1991. Science of the Total Environment 165: 165–183.
- 34. Del Negro P, Crevatin E, Larato C, Ferrari CR, Totti C, et al. (2005) Mucilage microcosms. Science of the Total Environment 353: 258–269.
- 35. Flander-Putrle V, Malej A (2008) The evolution and phytoplankton composition of mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic Sea. Harmful Algae 7: 752–761.
- 36. Wommack KE, Colwell RR (2000) Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64: 69–114.
- 37. Bongiorni L, Armeni M, Corinaldesi C, Dell'Anno A, Pusceddu A, et al. (2007) Viruses, prokaryotes and biochemical composition of organic matter in different types of mucilage aggregates. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 49: 15–23.
- 38. Danovaro R, Dell'Anno A, Corinaldesi C, Magagnini M, Noble R, et al. (2008) Major viral impact on the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Nature 454: 1084–1087.
- 39. Richardson L (1998) Coral diseases: what is really known? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 438–443.
- 40. Amann , RI , Ludwig W, Schleifer KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiology Reviews 59: 143–169.
- 41. Luna GM, Biavasco F, Danovaro R (2007) Bacteria associated with the rapid tissue necrosis of stony corals. Environmental Microbiology 9: 1851–1857.
- 42. Kokelj F, Trevisan G, Stinco G, Piscane AM (1994) Skin damage caused by mucilaginous aggregates in the Adriatic sea. Contact Dermatitis 31: 257–259.
- 43. Rath J, Wu KY, Herndl GJ, De Long EF (1998) High phylogenetic diversity in a marine-snow-associated bacterial assemblage. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 14: 261–9.
- 44. Aktan Y, Dede A, Ciftci PS (2008) Mucilage event associated with diatoms and dinoflagellates in Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Harmful Algae News 36: 1–3.
- 45. Roether W, Manca BB, Klein B, Bregant D, Georgopoulos D, et al. (1996) Recent changes in eastern Mediterranean deep waters. Science 271: 333–335.
- 46. Danovaro R, Dell'Anno A, Fabiano M, Pusceddu A, Tselepides A (2001) Deep-sea ecosystem response to climate changes: the eastern Mediterranean case study. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16: 505–510.
IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. 104 p. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
- 48. Carlton JT (1998) Apostrophe to the Ocean. Conservation Biology 12: 1165–1167.
- 49. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese E, Torres F Jr (1998) Fishing Down Marine Food Webs. Science 279: 860–863.
- 50. Pusceddu A, Fiordelmondo C, Polymenakou P, Polychronaki T, Tselepides A, et al. (2005) Effects of bottom trawling on the quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter in coastal marine sediments (Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea). Continental Shelf Research 25: 2491–2505.
- 51. Danovaro R, Armeni M, Corinaldesi C, Mei ML (2003) Viruses and marine pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 301–304.
- 52. Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, et al. (2008) Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives 116: 1–7.
- 53. MacKenzie L, Sims I, Beuzenberg V, Gillespie P (2002) Mass accumulation of mucilage caused by dinoflagellate polysaccharide exudates in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. Harmful Algae 1: 69–83.
- 54. Beaumont NJ, Austen MC, Atkins JP, Burdon D, Degraer S, et al. (2007) Identification, definition and quantification of goods and services provided by marine biodiversity: Implications for the ecosystem approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 253–265.
- 55. Patz JA, Campbell-Lendrum D, Holloway T, Foley JA (2005) Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438: 310–317.
- 56. Colwell RR (1996) Global climate and infectious disease: the Cholera paradigm. Science 274: 2025–2031.
- 57. Danovaro R, Luna GM, Dell'Anno A, Pietrangeli B (2006) Comparison of two fingerprinting techniques, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, for determination of bacterial diversity in aquatic environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5982–5989.
- 58. Corinaldesi C, Danovaro R, Dell'Anno A (2005) Simultaneous recovery of extracellular and intracellular DNA suitable for molecular studies from marine sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 46–50.