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Table of Contents

August 2017

Following secondary (re-)infection with MERS-CoV in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, complement protein is recruited to the lungs of rabbits and contributes to an increased inflammatory response. Immunofluorescence image of a MERS-CoV infected rabbit lung showing MERS-CoV N antigen (green) and complement C9 protein (red) following reinfection with MERS-CoV EMC/2012. Reinfection led to increased complement recruitment, with viral antigen and C9 protein visible within the inflammatory milieu surrounding many small vessels and alveoli within the lung tissue. Image is from day 3 post-infection at 40x, bar equivalent to 20μm. Subbarao et al.

Image Credit: Ian N Moore, Infectious Disease Pathogenesis Section, NIAID, NIH

Opinion

Pearls

Elucidating the function of the prion protein

Giuseppe Legname

Getting the flu: 5 key facts about influenza virus evolution

Katherine E. E. Johnson, Timothy Song, Benjamin Greenbaum, Elodie Ghedin

Multikingdom microscale models

Layla J. Barkal, Erwin Berthier, Ashleigh B. Theberge, Nancy P. Keller, David J. Beebe

L-type lectin receptor kinases: New forces in plant immunity

Yan Wang, Klaas Bouwmeester

Colonizing opportunistic pathogens (COPs): The beasts in all of us

Lance B. Price, Bruce A. Hungate, Benjamin J. Koch, Gregg S. Davis, Cindy M. Liu

Molecular mechanisms of mucormycosis—The bitter and the sweet

Clara Baldin, Ashraf S. Ibrahim

Review

Experimental study of tuberculosis: From animal models to complex cell systems and organoids

Kaori L. Fonseca, Pedro N. S. Rodrigues, I. Anna S. Olsson, Margarida Saraiva

Research Matters

Yes, research matters

Mari L. Shinohara

Research Articles

P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria

Érika Machado de Salles, Maria Nogueira de Menezes, Renan Siqueira, Henrique Borges da Silva, Eduardo Pinheiro Amaral, Sheyla Inés Castillo-Méndez, Isabela Cunha, Alexandra dos Anjos Cassado, Flávia Sarmento Vieira, David Nicholas Olivieri, Carlos Eduardo Tadokoro, José Maria Alvarez, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Maria Regina D’Império-Lima

Primate lentiviruses use at least three alternative strategies to suppress NF-κB-mediated immune activation

Dominik Hotter, Teresa Krabbe, Elisabeth Reith, Ali Gawanbacht, Nadia Rahm, Ahidjo Ayouba, Benoît Van Driessche, Carine Van Lint, Martine Peeters, Frank Kirchhoff, Daniel Sauter

Natural killer cells attenuate cytomegalovirus-induced hearing loss in mice

Ali A. Almishaal, Pranav D. Mathur, Elaine Hillas, Liting Chen, Anne Zhang, Jun Yang, Yong Wang, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Matthew A. Firpo, Albert H. Park

Protective capacity of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies against glycoprotein B of cytomegalovirus

Anna Bootz, Astrid Karbach, Johannes Spindler, Barbara Kropff, Nina Reuter, Heinrich Sticht, Thomas H. Winkler, William J. Britt, Michael Mach

HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection

Zhen Luo, Maolin Ge, Junbo Chen, Qibin Geng, Mingfu Tian, Zhi Qiao, Lan Bai, Qi Zhang, Chengliang Zhu, Ying Xiong, Kailang Wu, Fang Liu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu

Structural studies demonstrating a bacteriophage-like replication cycle of the eukaryote-infecting Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1

Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Tali Dadosh, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

Streptococcus pneumoniae in the heart subvert the host response through biofilm-mediated resident macrophage killing

Anukul T. Shenoy, Terry Brissac, Ryan P. Gilley, Nikhil Kumar, Yong Wang, Norberto Gonzalez-Juarbe, Whitney S. Hinkle, Sean C. Daugherty, Amol C. Shetty, Sandra Ott, Luke J. Tallon, Jessy Deshane, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J. Orihuela

Influenza NS1 directly modulates Hedgehog signaling during infection

Margery G. Smelkinson, Annabel Guichard, John R. Teijaro, Meghana Malur, Maria Eugenia Loureiro, Prashant Jain, Sundar Ganesan, Elina I. Zúñiga, Robert M. Krug, Michael B. Oldstone, Ethan Bier

The macrophage cytoskeleton acts as a contact sensor upon interaction with Entamoeba histolytica to trigger IL-1β secretion

Joëlle St-Pierre, France Moreau, Steve Cornick, Jeanie Quach, Sharmin Begum, Luz Aracely Fernandez, Hayley Gorman, Kris Chadee

Herpesviruses shape tumour microenvironment through exosomal transfer of viral microRNAs

Ohad Yogev, Stephen Henderson, Matthew John Hayes, Sara Sofia Marelli, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Javier Herrero, Tariq Enver

Genome-wide discovery of novel M1T1 group A streptococcal determinants important for fitness and virulence during soft-tissue infection

Yoann Le Breton, Ashton T. Belew, Jeffrey A. Freiberg, Ganesh S. Sundar, Emrul Islam, Joshua Lieberman, Mark E. Shirtliff, Hervé Tettelin, Najib M. El-Sayed, Kevin S. McIver

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExlA and Serratia marcescens ShlA trigger cadherin cleavage by promoting calcium influx and ADAM10 activation

Emeline Reboud, Stéphanie Bouillot, Sabine Patot, Benoît Béganton, Ina Attrée, Philippe Huber

Dynamics and regulation of nuclear import and nuclear movements of HIV-1 complexes

Ryan C. Burdick, Krista A. Delviks-Frankenberry, Jianbo Chen, Sanath K. Janaka, Jaya Sastri, Wei-Shau Hu, Vinay K. Pathak

The role of the C-terminal D0 domain of flagellin in activation of Toll like receptor 5

Vida Forstnerič, Karolina Ivičak-Kocjan, Tjaša Plaper, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina

O-acetylation of the serine-rich repeat glycoprotein GspB is coordinated with accessory Sec transport

Ravin Seepersaud, David Sychantha, Barbara A. Bensing, Anthony J. Clarke, Paul M. Sullam

Transient expression of ZBTB32 in anti-viral CD8+ T cells limits the magnitude of the effector response and the generation of memory

Hyun Mu Shin, Varun N. Kapoor, Gwanghun Kim, Peng Li, Hang-Rae Kim, M. Suresh, Susan M. Kaech, E. John Wherry, Liisa K. Selin, Warren J. Leonard, Raymond M. Welsh, Leslie J. Berg

T cell expression of IL-18R and DR3 is essential for non-cognate stimulation of Th1 cells and optimal clearance of intracellular bacteria

Oanh H. Pham, Hope O’Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M. Tsolis, Stephen J. McSorley

Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody

Katherine V. Houser, Andrew J. Broadbent, Lisa Gretebeck, Leatrice Vogel, Elaine W. Lamirande, Troy Sutton, Kevin W. Bock, Mahnaz Minai, Marlene Orandle, Ian N. Moore, Kanta Subbarao

The plasmid-encoded Ipf and Klf fimbriae display different expression and varying roles in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in mouse vs. avian hosts

Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A. Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor

Microbiome-mediated neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 and protection from amebic colitis

Koji Watanabe, Carol A. Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L. Burgess, Mayuresh M. Abhyankar, Shannon N. Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R. Donowitz, Brittany N. Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A. Petri Jr.

Structural analysis of P. falciparum KAHRP and PfEMP1 complexes with host erythrocyte spectrin suggests a model for cytoadherent knob protrusions

Erin E. Cutts, Niklas Laasch, Dirk M. Reiter, Raphael Trenker, Leanne M. Slater, Phillip J. Stansfeld, Ioannis Vakonakis

Characterization of novel bangle lectin from Photorhabdus asymbiotica with dual sugar-binding specificity and its effect on host immunity

Gita Jančaříková, Josef Houser, Pavel Dobeš, Gabriel Demo, Pavel Hyršl, Michaela Wimmerová

The AraC Negative Regulator family modulates the activity of histone-like proteins in pathogenic bacteria

Araceli E. Santiago, Michael B. Yan, Tracy H. Hazen, Brooke Sauder, Mario Meza-Segura, David A. Rasko, Melissa M. Kendall, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P. Nataro

Multi-functional mechanisms of immune evasion by the streptococcal complement inhibitor C5a peptidase

Nicola N. Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K. Siggins, Justin C. Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan

Botulinum neurotoxin C mutants reveal different effects of syntaxin or SNAP-25 proteolysis on neuromuscular transmission

Giulia Zanetti, Stefan Sikorra, Andreas Rummel, Nadja Krez, Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Tina Henke, Ornella Rossetto, Thomas Binz, Marco Pirazzini

Destabilizing polymorphism in cervid prion protein hydrophobic core determines prion conformation and conversion efficiency

Samia Hannaoui, Sara Amidian, Yo Ching Cheng, Camilo Duque Velásquez, Lyudmyla Dorosh, Sampson Law, Glenn Telling, Maria Stepanova, Debbie McKenzie, Holger Wille, Sabine Gilch

Cross-seeding of prions by aggregated α-synuclein leads to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

Elizaveta Katorcha, Natallia Makarava, Young Jin Lee, Iris Lindberg, Mervyn J. Monteiro, Gabor G. Kovacs, Ilia V. Baskakov

Tissue-specific control of latent CMV reactivation by regulatory T cells

Maha Almanan, Jana Raynor, Allyson Sholl, Mei Wang, Claire Chougnet, Rhonda D. Cardin, David A. Hildeman

Ligation of Dectin-2 with a novel microbial ligand promotes adjuvant activity for vaccination

Huafeng Wang, Taek-Jin Lee, Scott J. Fites, Richard Merkhofer, Robert Zarnowski, Tristan Brandhorst, Kevin Galles, Bruce Klein, Marcel Wüthrich

HIV-1 epitopes presented by MHC class I types associated with superior immune containment of viremia have highly constrained fitness landscapes

Aleksandr M. Gorin, Yushen Du, Franklin Y. Liu, Tian-Hao Zhang, Hwee L. Ng, Christian Hofmann, William G. Cumberland, Ren Sun, Otto O. Yang

A SIV molecular clone that targets the CNS and induces neuroAIDS in rhesus macaques

Kenta Matsuda, Nadeene E. Riddick, Cheri A. Lee, Sarah B. Puryear, Fan Wu, Bernard A. P. Lafont, Sonya Whitted, Vanessa M. Hirsch

Infection-adapted emergency hematopoiesis promotes visceral leishmaniasis

Belma Melda Abidin, Akil Hammami, Simona Stäger, Krista M. Heinonen

A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection

Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, Daniel L. Rock

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU augments neutrophil transepithelial migration

Michael A. Pazos, Bernard B. Lanter, Lael M. Yonker, Alex D. Eaton, Waheed Pirzai, Karsten Gronert, Joseph V. Bonventre, Bryan P. Hurley

Inhibition of caspase-1 or gasdermin-D enable caspase-8 activation in the Naip5/NLRC4/ASC inflammasome

Danielle P. A. Mascarenhas, Daiane M. Cerqueira, Marcelo S. F. Pereira, Fernanda V. S. Castanheira, Talita D. Fernandes, Graziele Z. Manin, Larissa D. Cunha, Dario S. Zamboni

Impact of prior flavivirus immunity on Zika virus infection in rhesus macaques

Michael K. McCracken, Gregory D. Gromowski, Heather L. Friberg, Xiaoxu Lin, Peter Abbink, Rafael De La Barrera, Kenneth H. Eckles, Lindsey S. Garver, Michael Boyd, David Jetton, Dan H. Barouch, Matthew C. Wise, Bridget S. Lewis, Jeffrey R. Currier, Kayvon Modjarrad, Mark Milazzo, Michelle Liu, Anna B. Mullins, J. Robert Putnak, Nelson L. Michael, Richard G. Jarman, Stephen J. Thomas

Engaging the CD40-CD40L pathway augments T-helper cell responses and improves control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

Jonathan Kevin Sia, Erica Bizzell, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Jyothi Rengarajan

B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway

M. Ayelén Milillo, Lis N. Velásquez, Aldana Trotta, M. Victoria Delpino, Fábio V. Marinho, Luciana Balboa, Mónica Vermeulen, Sonia L. Espindola, Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Gabriela C. Fernández, Sergio Costa Oliveira, Guillermo H. Giambartolomei, Paula Barrionuevo