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Table of Contents

September 2016

Deconvolution fluorescence microscopy identifies changes in the mucosal immune environment of the vaginal epithelial barrier in rhesus macaques after hormonal treatment. CD4+ T-cells (red, OKT4), target cells for HIV-1, are found in abundance in the vaginal epidermis in Depo Provera (DMPA)-treated macaques. This highlights injectable hormonal contraceptives and high progesterone as a potential HIV-1 risk factor for increased acquisition. Carias et al.

Image Credit: Ann M. Carias and Thomas J. Hope, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.

Opinions

Memory CD8+ T Cells: Orchestrators and Key Players of Innate Immunity?

Grégoire Lauvau, Stanislas Goriely

One Health: Addressing Global Challenges at the Nexus of Human, Animal, and Environmental Health

Waithaka Mwangi, Paul de Figueiredo, Michael F. Criscitiello

Pearls

Viral Manipulation of Host Inhibitory Receptor Signaling for Immune Evasion

Eugenia Z. Ong, Kuan Rong Chan, Eng Eong Ooi

Masters of Disguise: Antigenic Variation and the VSG Coat in Trypanosoma brucei

Monica R. Mugnier, C. Erec Stebbins, F. Nina Papavasiliou

Rampant Cheating by Pathogens?

Ethan A. Rundell, Saria A. McKeithen-Mead, Barbara I. Kazmierczak

Fungal Super Glue: The Biofilm Matrix and Its Composition, Assembly, and Functions

Kaitlin F. Mitchell, Robert Zarnowski, David R. Andes

Research Articles

Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth

Manalee Vishnu Surve, Anjali Anil, Kshama Ganesh Kamath, Smita Bhutda, Lakshmi Kavitha Sthanam, Arpan Pradhan, Rohit Srivastava, Bhakti Basu, Suryendu Dutta, Shamik Sen, Deepak Modi, Anirban Banerjee

Francisella tularensis IglG Belongs to a Novel Family of PAAR-Like T6SS Proteins and Harbors a Unique N-terminal Extension Required for Virulence

Mélanie Rigard, Jeanette E. Bröms, Amandine Mosnier, Maggy Hologne, Amandine Martin, Lena Lindgren, Claire Punginelli, Claire Lays, Olivier Walker, Alain Charbit, Philippe Telouk, Wayne Conlan, Laurent Terradot, Anders Sjöstedt, Thomas Henry

A Small Cysteine-Rich Protein from the Asian Soybean Rust Fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Suppresses Plant Immunity

Mingsheng Qi, Tobias I. Link, Manuel Müller, Daniela Hirschburger, Ramesh N. Pudake, Kerry F. Pedley, Edward Braun, Ralf T. Voegele, Thomas J. Baum, Steven A. Whitham

Cytomegalovirus Infection Leads to Development of High Frequencies of Cytotoxic Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells Targeted to Vascular Endothelium

Annette Pachnio, Miriam Ciaurriz, Jusnara Begum, Neeraj Lal, Jianmin Zuo, Andrew Beggs, Paul Moss

Latency Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Determined by the Interaction of Its Genome with the Nuclear Environment

Mohamed Ali Maroui, Aleth Callé, Camille Cohen, Nathalie Streichenberger, Pascale Texier, Julie Takissian, Antoine Rousseau, Nolwenn Poccardi, Jérémy Welsch, Armelle Corpet, Laurent Schaeffer, Marc Labetoulle, Patrick Lomonte

The Structural Architecture of an Infectious Mammalian Prion Using Electron Cryomicroscopy

Ester Vázquez-Fernández, Matthijn R. Vos, Pavel Afanasyev, Lino Cebey, Alejandro M. Sevillano, Enric Vidal, Isaac Rosa, Ludovic Renault, Adriana Ramos, Peter J. Peters, José Jesús Fernández, Marin van Heel, Howard S. Young, Jesús R. Requena, Holger Wille

Reduced Plasmodium Parasite Burden Associates with CD38+ CD4+ T Cells Displaying Cytolytic Potential and Impaired IFN-γ Production

Julie G. Burel, Simon H. Apte, Penny L. Groves, Kerenaftali Klein, James S. McCarthy, Denise L. Doolan

Progesterone-Based Therapy Protects Against Influenza by Promoting Lung Repair and Recovery in Females

Olivia J. Hall, Nathachit Limjunyawong, Meghan S. Vermillion, Dionne P. Robinson, Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Andrew Pekosz, Wayne Mitzner, Sabra L. Klein

Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development

Lian Jin, Qingqing Qin, Yu Wang, Yingying Pu, Lifang Liu, Xing Wen, Shaoyi Ji, Jianguo Wu, Chunhong Wei, Biao Ding, Yi Li

A Small Protein Associated with Fungal Energy Metabolism Affects the Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans in Mammals

Erin E. McClelland, Udupi A. Ramagopal, Johanna Rivera, James Cox, Antonio Nakouzi, Moses M. Prabu, Steven C. Almo, Arturo Casadevall

Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models

Víctor M. Castillo-Acosta, Luis M. Ruiz-Pérez, Juan Etxebarria, Niels C. Reichardt, Miguel Navarro, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Sandra Liekens, Jan Balzarini, Dolores González-Pacanowska

Leishmaniavirus-Dependent Metastatic Leishmaniasis Is Prevented by Blocking IL-17A

Mary-Anne Hartley, Eliane Bourreau, Matteo Rossi, Patrik Castiglioni, Remzi Onur Eren, Florence Prevel, Pierre Couppié, Suzanne M. Hickerson, Pascal Launois, Stephen M. Beverley, Catherine Ronet, Nicolas Fasel

Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways

Ketaki Ganti, Paola Massimi, Joaquin Manzo-Merino, Vjekoslav Tomaić, David Pim, Martin P. Playford, Marcela Lizano, Sally Roberts, Christian Kranjec, John Doorbar, Lawrence Banks

Impact of Microbiota on Resistance to Ocular Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis

Abirami Kugadas, Stig Hill Christiansen, Saiprasad Sankaranarayanan, Neeraj K. Surana, Stefanie Gauguet, Ryan Kunz, Raina Fichorova, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Mihaela Gadjeva

Staphylococcus aureus Exploits a Non-ribosomal Cyclic Dipeptide to Modulate Survival within Epithelial Cells and Phagocytes

Sebastian Blättner, Sudip Das, Kerstin Paprotka, Ursula Eilers, Markus Krischke, Dorothee Kretschmer, Christian W. Remmele, Marcus Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Christina Schuelein-Voelk, Tobias Hertlein, Martin J. Mueller, Bruno Huettel, Richard Reinhardt, Knut Ohlsen, Thomas Rudel, Martin J. Fraunholz

Engineering, Structure and Immunogenicity of the Human Metapneumovirus F Protein in the Postfusion Conformation

Vicente Más, Laura Rodriguez, Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Concepción Palomo, María C. Terrón, Daniel Luque, José A. Melero, Jason S. McLellan

MIF-Mediated Hemodilution Promotes Pathogenic Anemia in Experimental African Trypanosomosis

Benoît Stijlemans, Lea Brys, Hannelie Korf, Pawel Bieniasz-Krzywiec, Amanda Sparkes, Liese Vansintjan, Lin Leng, Nele Vanbekbergen, Massimiliano Mazzone, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Steven Odongo, Carl De Trez, Stefan Magez, Jo A. Van Ginderachter, Alain Beschin, Richard Bucala, Patrick De Baetselier

Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C

P. J. Klasse, Celia C. LaBranche, Thomas J. Ketas, Gabriel Ozorowski, Albert Cupo, Pavel Pugach, Rajesh P. Ringe, Michael Golabek, Marit J. van Gils, Miklos Guttman, Kelly K. Lee, Ian A. Wilson, Salvatore T. Butera, Andrew B. Ward, David C. Montefiori, Rogier W. Sanders, John P. Moore

Immune-Complexed Adenovirus Induce AIM2-Mediated Pyroptosis in Human Dendritic Cells

Karsten Eichholz, Thierry Bru, Thi Thu Phuong Tran, Paulo Fernandes, Hugh Welles, Franck J. D. Mennechet, Nicolas Manel, Paula Alves, Matthieu Perreau, Eric J. Kremer

Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

Daisuke S. Yamamoto, Megumi Sumitani, Katsumi Kasashima, Hideki Sezutsu, Hiroyuki Matsuoka

Calcineurin Targets Involved in Stress Survival and Fungal Virulence

Hee-Soo Park, Eve W. L. Chow, Ci Fu, Erik J. Soderblom, M. Arthur Moseley, Joseph Heitman, Maria E. Cardenas

Screen of Non-annotated Small Secreted Proteins of Pseudomonas syringae Reveals a Virulence Factor That Inhibits Tomato Immune Proteases

Takayuki Shindo, Farnusch Kaschani, Fan Yang, Judit Kovács, Fang Tian, Jiorgos Kourelis, Tram Ngoc Hong, Tom Colby, Mohammed Shabab, Rohini Chawla, Selva Kumari, Muhammad Ilyas, Anja C. Hörger, James R. Alfano, Renier A. L. van der Hoorn

Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Intrinsic Deletion of Setd7 Identifies Role for Developmental Pathways in Immunity to Helminth Infection

Menno J. Oudhoff, Frann Antignano, Alistair L. Chenery, Kyle Burrows, Stephen A. Redpath, Mitchell J. Braam, Georgia Perona-Wright, Colby Zaph

LANA-Mediated Recruitment of Host Polycomb Repressive Complexes onto the KSHV Genome during De Novo Infection

Zsolt Toth, Bernadett Papp, Kevin Brulois, Youn Jung Choi, Shou-Jiang Gao, Jae U. Jung

Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers

Benjamin B. Policicchio, Cuiling Xu, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Kevin D. Raehtz, Tianyu He, Dongzhu Ma, Hui Li, Ranjit Sivanandham, George S. Haret-Richter, Tammy Dunsmore, Anita Trichel, John W. Mellors, Beatrice H. Hahn, George M. Shaw, Ruy M. Ribeiro, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei

The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response

Preeti Bharaj, Yao E. Wang, Brian E. Dawes, Tatyana E. Yun, Arnold Park, Benjamin Yen, Christopher F. Basler, Alexander N. Freiberg, Benhur Lee, Ricardo Rajsbaum

Live Imaging of Influenza Infection of the Trachea Reveals Dynamic Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Motility by Antigen

Kris Lambert Emo, Young-min Hyun, Emma Reilly, Christopher Barilla, Scott Gerber, Deborah Fowell, Minsoo Kim, David J. Topham

IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa

Simon Altmeier, Albulena Toska, Florian Sparber, Alvaro Teijeira, Cornelia Halin, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann

A Bat-Derived Putative Cross-Family Recombinant Coronavirus with a Reovirus Gene

Canping Huang, William J. Liu, Wen Xu, Tao Jin, Yingze Zhao, Jingdong Song, Yi Shi, Wei Ji, Hao Jia, Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Honglan Zhao, Huaxing Liu, Hong Li, Qihui Wang, Ying Wu, Liang Wang, Di Liu, Guang Liu, Hongjie Yu, Edward C. Holmes, Lin Lu, George F. Gao

The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

Chad J. Johnson, Jonathan Cabezas-Olcoz, John F. Kernien, Steven X. Wang, David J. Beebe, Anna Huttenlocher, Hamayail Ansari, Jeniel E. Nett

Increases in Endogenous or Exogenous Progestins Promote Virus-Target Cell Interactions within the Non-human Primate Female Reproductive Tract

Ann M. Carias, Shannon A. Allen, Angela J. Fought, Katarina Kotnik Halavaty, Meegan R. Anderson, Maria L. Jimenez, Michael D. McRaven, Casey J. Gioia, Tara R. Henning, Ellen N. Kersh, James M. Smith, Lara E. Pereira, Katherine Butler, S. Janet M. McNicholl, R. Michael Hendry, Patrick F. Kiser, Ronald S. Veazey, Thomas J. Hope

The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

Moon Y. F. Tay, Kate Smith, Ivan H. W. Ng, Kitti W. K. Chan, Yongqian Zhao, Eng Eong Ooi, Julien Lescar, Dahai Luo, David A. Jans, Jade K. Forwood, Subhash G. Vasudevan

Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract

Alexander S. Zevin, Irene Y. Xie, Kenzie Birse, Kelly Arnold, Laura Romas, Garrett Westmacott, Richard M. Novak, Stuart McCorrister, Lyle R. McKinnon, Craig R. Cohen, Romel Mackelprang, Jairam Lingappa, Doug A. Lauffenburger, Nichole R. Klatt, Adam D. Burgener

Exceptional Heterogeneity in Viral Evolutionary Dynamics Characterises Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Jayna Raghwani, Rebecca Rose, Isabelle Sheridan, Philippe Lemey, Marc A. Suchard, Teresa Santantonio, Patrizia Farci, Paul Klenerman, Oliver G. Pybus

The Breadth of Synthetic Long Peptide Vaccine-Induced CD8+ T Cell Responses Determines the Efficacy against Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection

Eleni Panagioti, Anke Redeker, Suzanne van Duikeren, Kees LMC Franken, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Sjoerd H. van der Burg, Ramon Arens

Costimulatory Effects of an Immunodominant Parasite Antigen Paradoxically Prevent Induction of Optimal CD8 T Cell Protective Immunity

Christopher S. Eickhoff, Xiuli Zhang, Jose R. Vasconcelos, R. Geoffrey Motz, Nicole L. Sullivan, Kelly O’Shea, Nicola Pozzi, David W. Gohara, Jennifer R. Blase, Enrico Di Cera, Daniel F. Hoft

Fis Is Essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Virulence and Protects against Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Phagocytic Cells during Infection

Erin R. Green, Stacie Clark, Gregory T. Crimmins, Matthias Mack, Carol A. Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas

SCF Ubiquitin Ligase F-box Protein Fbx15 Controls Nuclear Co-repressor Localization, Stress Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

Bastian Jöhnk, Özgür Bayram, Anja Abelmann, Thorsten Heinekamp, Derek J. Mattern, Axel A. Brakhage, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard H. Braus

High Resolution Mapping of Bactericidal Monoclonal Antibody Binding Epitopes on Staphylococcus aureus Antigen MntC

Alexey V. Gribenko, Kevin Parris, Lidia Mosyak, Sheng Li, Luke Handke, Julio C. Hawkins, Elena Severina, Yury V. Matsuka, Annaliesa S. Anderson

Tbet Deficiency Causes T Helper Cell Dependent Airways Eosinophilia and Mucus Hypersecretion in Response to Rhinovirus Infection

Nicholas Glanville, Tamlyn J. Peel, Armin Schröder, Julia Aniscenko, Ross P. Walton, Susetta Finotto, Sebastian L. Johnston

Inactivation of Prions and Amyloid Seeds with Hypochlorous Acid

Andrew G. Hughson, Brent Race, Allison Kraus, Laura R. Sangaré, Lori Robins, Bradley R. Groveman, Eri Saijo, Katie Phillips, Luis Contreras, Virkamal Dhaliwal, Matteo Manca, Gianluigi Zanusso, Daniel Terry, Jeffrey F. Williams, Byron Caughey

The Structure of Treponema pallidum Tp0751 (Pallilysin) Reveals a Non-canonical Lipocalin Fold That Mediates Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix Components and Interactions with Host Cells

Michelle L. Parker, Simon Houston, Helena Pětrošová, Karen V. Lithgow, Rebecca Hof, Charmaine Wetherell, Wei-Chien Kao, Yi-Pin Lin, Tara J. Moriarty, Rhodaba Ebady, Caroline E. Cameron, Martin J. Boulanger

Human metapneumovirus Induces Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton for Direct Cell-to-Cell Spread

Farah El Najjar, Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Ursula J. Buchholz, Carole L. Moncman, Rebecca Ellis Dutch