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Table of Contents

December 2015

Scanning electron micrograph of Helicobacter pylori taken by Christine Schmitt (Imagopole, Institut Pasteur), false-coloring drawn by Jean-Marc Panaud (Service de Photographie, Institut Pasteur) and cells provided by Frédéric Fischer (Unité Pathogenèse de Helicobacter, Institut Pasteur). De Reuse et al.

Image Credit: Christine Schmitt (Imagopole, Institut Pasteur) and Jean-Marc Panaud (Service de Photographie, Institut Pasteur).

Opinion

Beyond Mortality: Sterility As a Neglected Component of Parasite Virulence

Jessica L. Abbate, Sarah Kada, Sébastien Lion

Pearls

Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infections: Polymicrobial, Complex, and Hard to Treat

Laura M. Filkins, George A. O’Toole

"With a Little Help from My Friends"—Social Motility in Trypanosoma brucei

Edwin A. Saada, Stephanie F. DeMarco, Michelle M. Shimogawa, Kent L. Hill

Peptidoglycan Perception in Plants

Andrea A. Gust

Silent Prions and Covert Prion Transmission

Candace K. Mathiason

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans: The North American Response and a Call for Action

Matthew J. Gray, James P. Lewis, Priya Nanjappa, Blake Klocke, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Craig Stephen, Gabriela Parra Olea, Scott A. Smith, Allison Sacerdote-Velat, Michelle R. Christman, Jennifer M. Williams, Deanna H. Olson

The Divergent Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells

Mateja Ozanic, Valentina Marecic, Yousef Abu Kwaik, Marina Santic

Traveling into Outer Space: Unanswered Questions about Fungal Extracellular Vesicles

Marcio L. Rodrigues, Rodrigo M. C. Godinho, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Leonardo Nimrichter

Reviews

How Does the VSG Coat of Bloodstream Form African Trypanosomes Interact with External Proteins?

Angela Schwede, Olivia J. S. Macleod, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington

LipidII: Just Another Brick in the Wall?

Dirk-Jan Scheffers, Menno B. Tol

Research Matters

Research Articles

New Strains Intended for the Production of Inactivated Polio Vaccine at Low-Containment After Eradication

Sarah Knowlson, John Burlison, Elaine Giles, Helen Fox, Andrew J. Macadam, Philip D. Minor

Dual Requirement of Cytokine and Activation Receptor Triggering for Cytotoxic Control of Murine Cytomegalovirus by NK Cells

Bijal A. Parikh, Sytse J. Piersma, Melissa A. Pak-Wittel, Liping Yang, Robert D. Schreiber, Wayne M. Yokoyama

Live Cell Analysis and Mathematical Modeling Identify Determinants of Attenuation of Dengue Virus 2’-O-Methylation Mutant

Bianca Schmid, Melanie Rinas, Alessia Ruggieri, Eliana Gisela Acosta, Marie Bartenschlager, Antje Reuter, Wolfgang Fischl, Nathalie Harder, Jan-Philip Bergeest, Michael Flossdorf, Karl Rohr, Thomas Höfer, Ralf Bartenschlager

Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury

Lu Huang, Daniel P. Beiting, Nebiat G. Gebreselassie, Lucille F. Gagliardo, Maura C. Ruyechan, Nancy A. Lee, James J. Lee, Judith A. Appleton

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Synthetic prions with novel strain-specified properties

Fabio Moda, Thanh-Nhat T. Le, Suzana Aulić, Edoardo Bistaffa, Ilaria Campagnani, Tommaso Virgilio, Antonio Indaco, Luisa Palamara, Olivier Andréoletti, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giuseppe Legname

Dengue Virus Impairs Mitochondrial Fusion by Cleaving Mitofusins

Chia-Yi Yu, Jian-Jong Liang, Jin-Kun Li, Yi-Ling Lee, Bi-Lan Chang, Chan-I Su, Wei-Jheng Huang, Michael M. C. Lai, Yi-Ling Lin

Phosphoproteomic Profiling Reveals Epstein-Barr Virus Protein Kinase Integration of DNA Damage Response and Mitotic Signaling

Renfeng Li, Gangling Liao, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Sneha M. Pinto, Patrick G. Shaw, Tai-Chung Huang, Jun Wan, Jiang Qian, Harsha Gowda, Xinyan Wu, Dong-Wen Lv, Kun Zhang, Srikanth S. Manda, Akhilesh Pandey, S. Diane Hayward

An Oomycete CRN Effector Reprograms Expression of Plant HSP Genes by Targeting their Promoters

Tianqiao Song, Zhenchuan Ma, Danyu Shen, Qi Li, Wanlin Li, Liming Su, Tingyue Ye, Meixiang Zhang, Yuanchao Wang, Daolong Dou

Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection

Danielle N. Kroetz, Ronald M. Allen, Matthew A. Schaller, Cleyton Cavallaro, Toshihiro Ito, Steven L. Kunkel

Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice

Isaac G. Sakala, Geeta Chaudhri, Anthony A. Scalzo, Preethi Eldi, Timothy P. Newsome, Robert M. Buller, Gunasegaran Karupiah

Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes

Wai-Hong Tham, Nicholas T. Y. Lim, Greta E. Weiss, Sash Lopaticki, Brendan R. E. Ansell, Megan Bird, Isabelle Lucet, Dominique Dorin-Semblat, Christian Doerig, Paul R. Gilson, Brendan S. Crabb, Alan F. Cowman

The Epstein-Barr Virus BART miRNA Cluster of the M81 Strain Modulates Multiple Functions in Primary B Cells

Xiaochen Lin, Ming-Han Tsai, Anatoliy Shumilov, Remy Poirey, Helmut Bannert, Jaap M. Middeldorp, Regina Feederle, Henri-Jacques Delecluse

A Trichomonas vaginalis Rhomboid Protease and Its Substrate Modulate Parasite Attachment and Cytolysis of Host Cells

Angelica M. Riestra, Shiv Gandhi, Michael J. Sweredoski, Annie Moradian, Sonja Hess, Sinisa Urban, Patricia J. Johnson

Intravital Imaging of Vascular Transmigration by the Lyme Spirochete: Requirement for the Integrin Binding Residues of the B. burgdorferi P66 Protein

Devender Kumar, Laura C. Ristow, Meiqing Shi, Priyanka Mukherjee, Jennifer A. Caine, Woo-Yong Lee, Paul Kubes, Jenifer Coburn, George Chaconas

Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection

Aimee D. Wilde, Daniel J. Snyder, Nicole E. Putnam, Michael D. Valentino, Neal D. Hammer, Zachery R. Lonergan, Scott A. Hinger, Esar E. Aysanoa, Catlyn Blanchard, Paul M. Dunman, Gregory A. Wasserman, John Chen, Bo Shopsin, Michael S. Gilmore, Eric P. Skaar, James E. Cassat

CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System

Rebecca A. Drummond, Amanda L. Collar, Muthulekha Swamydas, Carlos A. Rodriguez, Jean K. Lim, Laura M. Mendez, Danielle L. Fink, Amy P. Hsu, Bing Zhai, Hatice Karauzum, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Stacey R. Rose, Elise M. N. Ferre, Lynne Yockey, Kimberly Lemberg, Hye Sun Kuehn, Sergio D. Rosenzweig, Xin Lin, Prashant Chittiboina, Sandip K. Datta, Thomas H. Belhorn, Eric T. Weimer, Michelle L. Hernandez, Tobias M. Hohl, Douglas B. Kuhns, Michail S. Lionakis

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Uses CX3CR1 as a Receptor on Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cultures

Sara M. Johnson, Beth A. McNally, Ioannis Ioannidis, Emilio Flano, Michael N. Teng, Antonius G. Oomens, Edward E. Walsh, Mark E. Peeples

Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection

Michael G. Berg, Deanna Lee, Kelly Coller, Matthew Frankel, Andrew Aronsohn, Kevin Cheng, Kenn Forberg, Marilee Marcinkus, Samia N. Naccache, George Dawson, Catherine Brennan, Donald M. Jensen, John Hackett Jr., Charles Y. Chiu

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Schistosomes Enhance Plasminogen Activation: The Role of Tegumental Enolase

Barbara C. Figueiredo, Akram A. Da'dara, Sergio C. Oliveira, Patrick J. Skelly

Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia

Norberto González-Juarbe, Ryan Paul Gilley, Cecilia Anahí Hinojosa, Kelley Margaret Bradley, Akinobu Kamei, Geli Gao, Peter Herman Dube, Molly Ann Bergman, Carlos Javier Orihuela

Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction

Patrick S. Mitchell, Janet M. Young, Michael Emerman, Harmit S. Malik

Mono-ubiquitylated ORF45 Mediates Association of KSHV Particles with Internal Lipid Rafts for Viral Assembly and Egress

Xin Wang, Nannan Zhu, Wenwei Li, Fanxiu Zhu, Yan Wang, Yan Yuan

The Entamoeba histolytica, Arp2/3 Complex Is Recruited to Phagocytic Cups through an Atypical Kinase EhAK1

Mrigya Babuta, M Shahid Mansuri, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya

Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo

Johannes Westman, Praveen Papareddy, Madelene W. Dahlgren, Bhavya Chakrakodi, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Emanuel Smeds, Adam Linder, Matthias Mörgelin, Bengt Johansson-Lindbom, Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald

Crystal Structure of the Pre-fusion Nipah Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Reveals a Novel Hexamer-of-Trimers Assembly

Kai Xu, Yee-Peng Chan, Birgit Bradel-Tretheway, Zeynep Akyol-Ataman, Yongqun Zhu, Somnath Dutta, Lianying Yan, YanRu Feng, Lin-Fa Wang, Georgios Skiniotis, Benhur Lee, Z. Hong Zhou, Christopher C. Broder, Hector C. Aguilar, Dimitar B. Nikolov

Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses

Tina M. Sali, Kara M. Pryke, Jinu Abraham, Andrew Liu, Iris Archer, Rebecca Broeckel, Julia A. Staverosky, Jessica L. Smith, Ahmed Al-Shammari, Lisi Amsler, Kayla Sheridan, Aaron Nilsen, Daniel N. Streblow, Victor R. DeFilippis

Early Loss of Splenic Tfh Cells in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

Félicien Moukambi, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Vasco Rodrigues, Gina Racine, Lynda Robitaille, Bernard Krust, Guadalupe Andreani, Calayselvy Soundaramourty, Ricardo Silvestre, Mireille Laforge, Jérôme Estaquier

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Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes

Rita Marcia Cardoso de Paiva, Viviane Grazielle-Silva, Mariana Santos Cardoso, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Rondon Pessoa Mendonça-Neto, Adriana Monte Cassiano Canavaci, Normanda Souza Melo, Patrícia Massara Martinelli, Ana Paula Fernandes, Wanderson Duarte daRocha, Santuza M. R. Teixeira

Evolution of Helicobacter: Acquisition by Gastric Species of Two Histidine-Rich Proteins Essential for Colonization

Daniel Vinella, Frédéric Fischer, Egor Vorontsov, Julien Gallaud, Christian Malosse, Valérie Michel, Christine Cavazza, Marie Robbe-Saule, Pierre Richaud, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Céline Brochier-Armanet, Hilde De Reuse

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PD-L1 Blockade Differentially Impacts Regulatory T Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals Depending on Plasma Viremia

Cristina Peligero, Jordi Argilaguet, Roberto Güerri-Fernandez, Berta Torres, Carmen Ligero, Pilar Colomer, Montserrat Plana, Hernando Knobel, Felipe García, Andreas Meyerhans

Systematic Structural Analyses of Attachment Organelle in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Daisuke Nakane, Tsuyoshi Kenri, Lisa Matsuo, Makoto Miyata

An Evolution-Based Screen for Genetic Differentiation between Anopheles Sister Taxa Enriches for Detection of Functional Immune Factors

Christian Mitri, Emmanuel Bischoff, Eizo Takashima, Marni Williams, Karin Eiglmeier, Adrien Pain, Wamdaogo M. Guelbeogo, Awa Gneme, Emma Brito-Fravallo, Inge Holm, Catherine Lavazec, N’Fale Sagnon, Richard H. Baxter, Michelle M. Riehle, Kenneth D. Vernick

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Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway

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Antiviral Protection via RdRP-Mediated Stable Activation of Innate Immunity

Meghan M. Painter, James H. Morrison, Laurie J. Zoecklein, Tommy A. Rinkoski, Jens O. Watzlawik, Louisa M. Papke, Arthur E. Warrington, Allan J. Bieber, William E. Matchett, Kari L. Turkowski, Eric M. Poeschla, Moses Rodriguez

Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics

Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram

Human Metapneumovirus Is Capable of Entering Cells by Fusion with Endosomal Membranes

Reagan G. Cox, Bernardo A. Mainou, Monika Johnson, Andrew K. Hastings, Jennifer E. Schuster, Terence S. Dermody, John V. Williams

Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes

Elise Courtot, Claude L. Charvet, Robin N. Beech, Abdallah Harmache, Adrian J. Wolstenholme, Lindy Holden-Dye, Vincent O’Connor, Nicolas Peineau, Debra J. Woods, Cedric Neveu

The SUMOylation Pathway Restricts Gene Transduction by Adeno-Associated Viruses

Christina Hölscher, Florian Sonntag, Katharina Henrich, Qingxin Chen, Jürgen Beneke, Petr Matula, Karl Rohr, Lars Kaderali, Nina Beil, Holger Erfle, Jürgen A. Kleinschmidt, Martin Müller

Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes

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The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events

Samantha K. Dunmire, Jennifer M. Grimm, David O. Schmeling, Henry H. Balfour Jr., Kristin A. Hogquist

Specific Interaction between eEF1A and HIV RT Is Critical for HIV-1 Reverse Transcription and a Potential Anti-HIV Target

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