Advertisement
Table of Contents

May 2014

The structure is derived from the analysis by cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography of non-trypsinized virions from two rotavirus model strains. The undigested spike is able to achieve a stable, rigid conformation similar to that of the mature trypsin-cleaved particle. See Rodríguez et al.

Image Credit: Javier M. Rodríguez, Francisco J. Chichón, Esther Martín-Forero, Fernando González-Camacho, José L. Carrascosa, José R. Castón and Daniel Luque (CNM/ISCIII and CNB/CSIC, Spain)

Opinions

Are We There Yet? The Smallpox Research Agenda Using Variola Virus

Inger K. Damon, Clarissa R. Damaso, Grant McFadden

Cellular Superspreaders: An Epidemiological Perspective on HIV Infection inside the Body

Kristina Talbert-Slagle, Katherine E. Atkins, Koon-Kiu Yan, Ekta Khurana, Mark Gerstein, Elizabeth H. Bradley, David Berg, Alison P. Galvani, Jeffrey P. Townsend

Surveillance for Emerging Biodiversity Diseases of Wildlife

Laura F. Grogan, Lee Berger, Karrie Rose, Victoria Grillo, Scott D. Cashins, Lee F. Skerratt

Pearls

PARV4: An Emerging Tetraparvovirus

Philippa C. Matthews, Amna Malik, Ruth Simmons, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Paul Klenerman

HIV-1 Envelope gp41 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: Hurdles for Vaccine Development

Laurent Verkoczy, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F. Haynes

Research Articles

Two Novel Human Cytomegalovirus NK Cell Evasion Functions Target MICA for Lysosomal Degradation

Ceri A. Fielding, Rebecca Aicheler, Richard J. Stanton, Eddie C. Y. Wang, Song Han, Sepehr Seirafian, James Davies, Brian P. McSharry, Michael P. Weekes, P. Robin Antrobus, Virginie Prod'homme, Fabien P. Blanchet, Daniel Sugrue, Simone Cuff, Dawn Roberts, Andrew J. Davison, Paul J. Lehner, Gavin W. G. Wilkinson, Peter Tomasec

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis

Jose L. Nieto-Torres, Marta L. DeDiego, Carmina Verdiá-Báguena, Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose A. Regla-Nava, Raul Fernandez-Delgado, Carlos Castaño-Rodriguez, Antonio Alcaraz, Jaume Torres, Vicente M. Aguilella, Luis Enjuanes

A Role for LHC1 in Higher Order Structure and Complement Binding of the Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule

Yoon-Dong Park, Soowan Shin, John Panepinto, Jeanie Ramos, Jin Qiu, Susana Frases, Patricia Albuquerque, Radames J. B. Cordero, Nannan Zhang, Uwe Himmelreich, David Beenhouwer, John E. Bennett, Arturo Casadevall, Peter R. Williamson

Anthrax Lethal Factor as an Immune Target in Humans and Transgenic Mice and the Impact of HLA Polymorphism on CD4+ T Cell Immunity

Stephanie Ascough, Rebecca J. Ingram, Karen K. Chu, Catherine J. Reynolds, Julie A. Musson, Mehmet Doganay, Gökhan Metan, Yusuf Ozkul, Les Baillie, Shiranee Sriskandan, Stephen J. Moore, Theresa B. Gallagher, Hugh Dyson, E. Diane Williamson, John H. Robinson, Bernard Maillere, Rosemary J. Boyton, Daniel M. Altmann

HIV-Infected Individuals with Low CD4/CD8 Ratio despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Exhibit Altered T Cell Subsets, Heightened CD8+ T Cell Activation, and Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Morbidity and Mortality

Sergio Serrano-Villar, Talia Sainz, Sulggi A. Lee, Peter W. Hunt, Elizabeth Sinclair, Barbara L. Shacklett, April L. Ferre, Timothy L. Hayes, Ma Somsouk, Priscilla Y. Hsue, Mark L. Van Natta, Curtis L. Meinert, Michael M. Lederman, Hiroyu Hatano, Vivek Jain, Yong Huang, Frederick M. Hecht, Jeffrey N. Martin, Joseph M. McCune, Santiago Moreno, Steven G. Deeks

Dual-Site Phosphorylation of the Control of Virulence Regulator Impacts Group A Streptococcal Global Gene Expression and Pathogenesis

Nicola Horstmann, Miguel Saldaña, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Hui Yao, Xiaoping Su, Erika Thompson, Antonius Koller, Samuel A. Shelburne III

HIV and HCV Activate the Inflammasome in Monocytes and Macrophages via Endosomal Toll-Like Receptors without Induction of Type 1 Interferon

Michael A. Chattergoon, Rachel Latanich, Jeffrey Quinn, Matthew E. Winter, Robert W. Buckheit 3rd, Joel N. Blankson, Drew Pardoll, Andrea L. Cox

Follicular Helper T Cells Promote Liver Pathology in Mice during Schistosoma japonicum Infection

Xiaojun Chen, Xiaowei Yang, Yong Li, Jifeng Zhu, Sha Zhou, Zhipeng Xu, Lei He, Xue Xue, Weiwei Zhang, Xiaoxiao Dong, Henry Wu, Carrie J. Li, Hsiang-Ting Hsu, Wenjun Kong, Feng Liu, Prem B. Tripathi, Michelle S. Yu, Jason Chang, Liang Zhou, Chuan Su

Combined Systems Approaches Reveal Highly Plastic Responses to Antimicrobial Peptide Challenge in Escherichia coli

Justyna Kozlowska, Louic S. Vermeer, Geraint B. Rogers, Nabila Rehnnuma, Sarah-Beth T. A. Amos, Garrit Koller, Michael McArthur, Kenneth D. Bruce, A. James Mason

Molecular Signatures of Hemagglutinin Stem-Directed Heterosubtypic Human Neutralizing Antibodies against Influenza A Viruses

Yuval Avnir, Aimee S. Tallarico, Quan Zhu, Andrew S. Bennett, Gene Connelly, Jared Sheehan, Jianhua Sui, Amr Fahmy, Chiung-yu Huang, Greg Cadwell, Laurie A. Bankston, Andrew T. McGuire, Leonidas Stamatatos, Gerhard Wagner, Robert C. Liddington, Wayne A. Marasco

The Contribution of Viral Genotype to Plasma Viral Set-Point in HIV Infection

Emma Hodcroft, Jarrod D. Hadfield, Esther Fearnhill, Andrew Phillips, David Dunn, Siobhan O'Shea, Deenan Pillay, Andrew J. Leigh Brown, on behalf of the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database and the UK CHIC Study

Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics

Na Shang, Qian Li, Tzu-Ping Ko, Hsiu-Chien Chan, Jikun Li, Yingying Zheng, Chun-Hsiang Huang, Feifei Ren, Chun-Chi Chen, Zhen Zhu, Melina Galizzi, Zhu-Hong Li, Carlos A. Rodrigues-Poveda, Dolores Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Phercyles Veiga-Santos, Tecia Maria Ulisses de Carvalho, Wanderley de Souza, Julio A. Urbina, Andrew H.-J. Wang, Roberto Docampo, Kai Li, Yi-Liang Liu, Eric Oldfield, Rey-Ting Guo

Related Articles

High-Efficiency Targeted Editing of Large Viral Genomes by RNA-Guided Nucleases

Yanwei Bi, Le Sun, Dandan Gao, Chen Ding, Zhihua Li, Yadong Li, Wei Cun, Qihan Li

A Nasal Epithelial Receptor for Staphylococcus aureus WTA Governs Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Modulates Nasal Colonization

Stefanie Baur, Maren Rautenberg, Manuela Faulstich, Timo Grau, Yannik Severin, Clemens Unger, Wolfgang H. Hoffmann, Thomas Rudel, Ingo B. Autenrieth, Christopher Weidenmaier

Related Articles

Prophenoloxidase Activation Is Required for Survival to Microbial Infections in Drosophila

Olivier Binggeli, Claudine Neyen, Mickael Poidevin, Bruno Lemaitre

Timed Action of IL-27 Protects from Immunopathology while Preserving Defense in Influenza

Francesca Diane M. Liu, Elisabeth E. Kenngott, Micha F. Schröter, Anja Kühl, Silke Jennrich, Ralf Watzlawick, Ute Hoffmann, Thorsten Wolff, Stephen Norley, Alexander Scheffold, Jason S. Stumhofer, Christiaan J. M. Saris, Jan M. Schwab, Christopher A. Hunter, Gudrun F. Debes, Alf Hamann

Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Catherine Vilchèze, Virginie Molle, Séverine Carrère-Kremer, Jade Leiba, Lionel Mourey, Shubhada Shenai, Grégory Baronian, Joann Tufariello, Travis Hartman, Romain Veyron-Churlet, Xavier Trivelli, Sangeeta Tiwari, Brian Weinrick, David Alland, Yann Guérardel, William R. Jacobs Jr, Laurent Kremer

SslE Elicits Functional Antibodies That Impair In Vitro Mucinase Activity and In Vivo Colonization by Both Intestinal and Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Strains

Barbara Nesta, Maria Valeri, Angela Spagnuolo, Roberto Rosini, Marirosa Mora, Paolo Donato, Christopher J. Alteri, Mariangela Del Vecchio, Scilla Buccato, Alfredo Pezzicoli, Isabella Bertoldi, Lapo Buzzigoli, Giovanna Tuscano, Maria Falduto, Valentina Rippa, Yaqoub Ashhab, Giuliano Bensi, Maria Rita Fontana, Kate L. Seib, Harry L. T. Mobley, Mariagrazia Pizza, Marco Soriani, Laura Serino

Related Articles

Epigenetic Changes Modulate Schistosome Egg Formation and Are a Novel Target for Reducing Transmission of Schistosomiasis

Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Stephany Caby, Julien Lancelot, Mathieu Vanderstraete, Silviya D. Furdas, Manfred Jung, Raymond J. Pierce, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié

Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 4 (SOCS4) Protects against Severe Cytokine Storm and Enhances Viral Clearance during Influenza Infection

Lukasz Kedzierski, Edmond M. Linossi, Tatiana B. Kolesnik, E. Bridie Day, Nicola L. Bird, Benjamin T. Kile, Gabrielle T. Belz, Donald Metcalf, Nicos A. Nicola, Katherine Kedzierska, Sandra E. Nicholson

Epstein-Barr Virus Down-Regulates Tumor Suppressor DOK1 Expression

Maha Siouda, Cecilia Frecha, Rosita Accardi, Jiping Yue, Cyrille Cuenin, Henri Gruffat, Evelyne Manet, Zdenko Herceg, Bakary S. Sylla, Massimo Tommasino

Unexpected Role for IL-17 in Protective Immunity against Hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis HN878 Infection

Radha Gopal, Leticia Monin, Samantha Slight, Uzodinma Uche, Emmeline Blanchard, Beth A. Fallert Junecko, Rosalio Ramos-Payan, Christina L. Stallings, Todd A. Reinhart, Jay K. Kolls, Deepak Kaushal, Uma Nagarajan, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Shabaana A. Khader

Co-assembly of Viral Envelope Glycoproteins Regulates Their Polarized Sorting in Neurons

Rafael Mattera, Ginny G. Farías, Gonzalo A. Mardones, Juan S. Bonifacino

Structural and Biochemical Characterization Reveals LysGH15 as an Unprecedented “EF-Hand-Like” Calcium-Binding Phage Lysin

Jingmin Gu, Yingang Feng, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei, Wei Ding, Fengfeng Niu, Lianying Jiao, Mei Yang, Yue Li, Xiaohe Liu, Jun Song, Ziyin Cui, Dong Han, Chongtao Du, Yongjun Yang, Songying Ouyang, Zhi-Jie Liu, Wenyu Han

Hepatitis C Virus Cell-Cell Transmission and Resistance to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

Fei Xiao, Isabel Fofana, Laura Heydmann, Heidi Barth, Eric Soulier, François Habersetzer, Michel Doffoël, Jens Bukh, Arvind H. Patel, Mirjam B. Zeisel, Thomas F. Baumert

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hip1 Modulates Macrophage Responses through Proteolysis of GroEL2

Jacqueline L. Naffin-Olivos, Maria Georgieva, Nathan Goldfarb, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Lauren Dong, Erica Bizzell, Ethan Valinetz, Gabriel S. Brandt, Sarah Yu, Daniil E. Shabashvili, Dagmar Ringe, Ben M. Dunn, Gregory A. Petsko, Jyothi Rengarajan

T Cell Inactivation by Poxviral B22 Family Proteins Increases Viral Virulence

Dina Alzhanova, Erika Hammarlund, Jason Reed, Erin Meermeier, Stephanie Rawlings, Caroline A. Ray, David M. Edwards, Ben Bimber, Alfred Legasse, Shannon Planer, Jerald Sprague, Michael K. Axthelm, David J. Pickup, David M. Lewinsohn, Marielle C. Gold, Scott W. Wong, Jonah B. Sacha, Mark K. Slifka, Klaus Früh

The Downregulation of GFI1 by the EZH2-NDY1/KDM2B-JARID2 Axis and by Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Associated Factors Allows the Activation of the HCMV Major IE Promoter and the Transition to Productive Infection

George Sourvinos, Antigoni Morou, Ioannis Sanidas, Ignea Codruta, Scott A. Ezell, Christina Doxaki, Sotirios C. Kampranis, Filippos Kottakis, Philip N. Tsichlis

Cathepsin-L Can Resist Lysis by Human Serum in Trypanosoma brucei brucei

Sam Alsford, Rachel B. Currier, José Afonso Guerra-Assunção, Taane G. Clark, David Horn

Human Cytomegalovirus Fcγ Binding Proteins gp34 and gp68 Antagonize Fcγ Receptors I, II and III

Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar, Mirko Trilling, Katja Hunold, Manuela Fiedler, Vu Thuy Khanh Le, Henrike Reinhard, Katrin Ehrhardt, Eva Mercé-Maldonado, Enver Aliyev, Albert Zimmermann, David C. Johnson, Hartmut Hengel

Structural Basis for the Ubiquitin-Linkage Specificity and deISGylating Activity of SARS-CoV Papain-Like Protease

Kiira Ratia, Andrew Kilianski, Yahira M. Baez-Santos, Susan C. Baker, Andrew Mesecar

Different Modes of Retrovirus Restriction by Human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G In Vivo

Spyridon Stavrou, Daniel Crawford, Kristin Blouch, Edward P. Browne, Rahul M. Kohli, Susan R. Ross

CD8+ T Cells from a Novel T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mouse Induce Liver-Stage Immunity That Can Be Boosted by Blood-Stage Infection in Rodent Malaria

Lei Shong Lau, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, Vanessa Mollard, Angelika Sturm, Michelle A. Neller, Anton Cozijnsen, Julia L. Gregory, Gayle M. Davey, Claerwen M. Jones, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Ashraful Haque, Christian R. Engwerda, Catherine Q. Nie, Diana S. Hansen, Kenneth M. Murphy, Anthony T. Papenfuss, John J. Miles, Scott R. Burrows, Tania de Koning-Ward, Geoffrey I. McFadden, Francis R. Carbone, Brendan S. Crabb, William R. Heath

Broad-Spectrum Anti-biofilm Peptide That Targets a Cellular Stress Response

César de la Fuente-Núñez, Fany Reffuveille, Evan F. Haney, Suzana K. Straus, Robert E. W. Hancock

Virus and Autoantigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Key Effectors in a SCID Mouse Model of EBV-Associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

Stefanie Linnerbauer, Uta Behrends, Dinesh Adhikary, Klaus Witter, Georg W. Bornkamm, Josef Mautner

Integrative Functional Genomics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Identifies Host Dependencies in Complete Viral Replication Cycle

Qisheng Li, Yong-Yuan Zhang, Stephan Chiu, Zongyi Hu, Keng-Hsin Lan, Helen Cha, Catherine Sodroski, Fang Zhang, Ching-Sheng Hsu, Emmanuel Thomas, T. Jake Liang

Inactivation of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase Prevents Optimal Co-catabolism of Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Carbon Substrates in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Susan Puckett, Carolina Trujillo, Hyungjin Eoh, Joeli Marrero, John Spencer, Mary Jackson, Dirk Schnappinger, Kyu Rhee, Sabine Ehrt

TNFα and IFNγ but Not Perforin Are Critical for CD8 T Cell-Mediated Protection against Pulmonary Yersinia pestis Infection

Frank M. Szaba, Lawrence W. Kummer, Debra K. Duso, Ekaterina P. Koroleva, Alexei V. Tumanov, Andrea M. Cooper, James B. Bliska, Stephen T. Smiley, Jr-Shiuan Lin

Venus Kinase Receptors Control Reproduction in the Platyhelminth Parasite Schistosoma mansoni

Mathieu Vanderstraete, Nadège Gouignard, Katia Cailliau, Marion Morel, Steffen Hahnel, Silke Leutner, Svenja Beckmann, Christoph G. Grevelding, Colette Dissous

Related Articles

The Evolutionarily Conserved Mediator Subunit MDT-15/MED15 Links Protective Innate Immune Responses and Xenobiotic Detoxification

Read Pukkila-Worley, Rhonda L. Feinbaum, Deborah L. McEwan, Annie L. Conery, Frederick M. Ausubel

The Inflammasome Pyrin Contributes to Pertussis Toxin-Induced IL-1β Synthesis, Neutrophil Intravascular Crawling and Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Aline Dumas, Nathalie Amiable, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Jae Jin Chae, Robert W. Keane, Steve Lacroix, Luc Vallières

Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

Anna Lundin, Ronald Dijkman, Tomas Bergström, Nina Kann, Beata Adamiak, Charles Hannoun, Eveline Kindler, Hulda R. Jónsdóttir, Doreen Muth, Joeri Kint, Maria Forlenza, Marcel A. Müller, Christian Drosten, Volker Thiel, Edward Trybala

Dynamics of HIV Latency and Reactivation in a Primary CD4+ T Cell Model

Pejman Mohammadi, Julia di Iulio, Miguel Muñoz, Raquel Martinez, István Bartha, Matthias Cavassini, Christian Thorball, Jacques Fellay, Niko Beerenwinkel, Angela Ciuffi, Amalio Telenti

A Multifactorial Role for P. falciparum Malaria in Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Pathogenesis

Charles Torgbor, Peter Awuah, Kirk Deitsch, Parisa Kalantari, Karen A. Duca, David A. Thorley-Lawson

Large Scale RNAi Reveals the Requirement of Nuclear Envelope Breakdown for Nuclear Import of Human Papillomaviruses

Inci Aydin, Susanne Weber, Berend Snijder, Pilar Samperio Ventayol, Andreas Kühbacher, Miriam Becker, Patricia M. Day, John T. Schiller, Michael Kann, Lucas Pelkmans, Ari Helenius, Mario Schelhaas

New Insights into Rotavirus Entry Machinery: Stabilization of Rotavirus Spike Conformation Is Independent of Trypsin Cleavage

Javier M. Rodríguez, Francisco J. Chichón, Esther Martín-Forero, Fernando González-Camacho, José L. Carrascosa, José R. Castón, Daniel Luque

Related Articles

The PhoP-Dependent ncRNA Mcr7 Modulates the TAT Secretion System in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Luis Solans, Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Claudia Sala, Andrej Benjak, Swapna Uplekar, Jacques Rougemont, Christophe Guilhot, Wladimir Malaga, Carlos Martín, Stewart T. Cole

Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

Katherine J. Kasper, Joseph J. Zeppa, Adrienne T. Wakabayashi, Stacey X. Xu, Delfina M. Mazzuca, Ian Welch, Miren L. Baroja, Malak Kotb, Ewa Cairns, P. Patrick Cleary, S. M. Mansour Haeryfar, John K. McCormick

Ly49C-Dependent Control of MCMV Infection by NK Cells Is Cis-Regulated by MHC Class I Molecules

Catherine A. Forbes, Anthony A. Scalzo, Mariapia A. Degli-Esposti, Jerome D. Coudert

A New Class of Multimerization Selective Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase

Amit Sharma, Alison Slaughter, Nivedita Jena, Lei Feng, Jacques J. Kessl, Hind J. Fadel, Nirav Malani, Frances Male, Li Wu, Eric Poeschla, Frederic D. Bushman, James R. Fuchs, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia

A Large Family of Antivirulence Regulators Modulates the Effects of Transcriptional Activators in Gram-negative Pathogenic Bacteria

Araceli E. Santiago, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Noah Y. Jo, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Mei Q. Gong, James P. Nataro