Table of Contents

November 2011

Herpesviruses have evolved a stunning array of mechanisms to escape immune detection, both by CTLs and NK cells. The HHV-7 U21 open reading frame encodes a protein that can bind to and reroute both class I MHC molecules and the NK-activating ligand ULBP1 to the lysosomal compartment. This deconvolved widefield epifluorescence micrograph shows co-localization of the NK-activating ligand ULBP1 with lamp2, a lysosomal membrane protein, in U21-expressing astrocytoma cells. Alexafluor-488- and -598-conjugated secondary antibodies were used to label antibodies directed against lamp2 (green) and HHV-7 U21 (magenta). Light green-white indicates co-localization (see Schneider and Hudson, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002362).

Image Credit: Amy W. Hudson and Christine L. Schneider, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin


Simple Rapid Near-Patient Diagnostics for Tuberculosis Remain Elusive—Is a “Treat-to-Test” Strategy More Realistic?

Alice L. den Hertog, Oleg A. Mayboroda, Paul R. Klatser, Richard M. Anthony


Microbial Spy Games and Host Response: Roles of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Small Molecule in Communication with Other Species

Lucja M. Jarosz, Ekaterina S. Ovchinnikova, Michael M. Meijler, Bastiaan P. Krom


The Role of the P2X7 Receptor in Infectious Diseases

Catherine M. Miller, Nicola R. Boulter, Stephen J. Fuller, Alana M. Zakrzewski, Michael P. Lees, Bernadette M. Saunders, James S. Wiley, Nicholas C. Smith

Research Articles

Inhibition of IL-10 Production by Maternal Antibodies against Group B Streptococcus GAPDH Confers Immunity to Offspring by Favoring Neutrophil Recruitment

Pedro Madureira, Elva Bonifácio Andrade, Bernardo Gama, Liliana Oliveira, Susana Moreira, Adília Ribeiro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Manuel Vilanova, Paula Ferreira

Shedding Light on the Elusive Role of Endothelial Cells in Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

Torsten Sacher, Joachim Andrassy, Aivars Kalnins, Lars Dölken, Stefan Jordan, Jürgen Podlech, Zsolt Ruzsics, Karl-Walter Jauch, Matthias J. Reddehase, Ulrich H. Koszinowski

Metagenomic Analysis of Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: Discovery of a New Bunyavirus

Bianli Xu, Licheng Liu, Xueyong Huang, Hong Ma, Yuan Zhang, Yanhua Du, Pengzhi Wang, Xiaoyan Tang, Haifeng Wang, Kai Kang, Shiqiang Zhang, Guohua Zhao, Weili Wu, Yinhui Yang, Haomin Chen, Feng Mu, Weijun Chen

Ultra-Efficient PrPSc Amplification Highlights Potentialities and Pitfalls of PMCA Technology

Gian Mario Cosseddu, Romolo Nonno, Gabriele Vaccari, Cecilia Bucalossi, Natalia Fernandez-Borges, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Joaquin Castilla, Umberto Agrimi

A Gammaherpesvirus Cooperates with Interferon-alpha/beta-Induced IRF2 to Halt Viral Replication, Control Reactivation, and Minimize Host Lethality

Pratyusha Mandal, Bridgette E. Krueger, Darby Oldenburg, Katherine A. Andry, R. Suzanne Beard, Douglas W. White, Erik S. Barton

A TNF-Regulated Recombinatorial Macrophage Immune Receptor Implicated in Granuloma Formation in Tuberculosis

Alexander W. Beham, Kerstin Puellmann, Rebecca Laird, Tina Fuchs, Roswita Streich, Caroline Breysach, Dirk Raddatz, Septimia Oniga, Teresa Peccerella, Peter Findeisen, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Alexei Gratchev, Stefan Schweyer, Bernadette Saunders, Johannes T. Wessels, Wiebke Möbius, Joseph Keane, Heinz Becker, Arnold Ganser, Michael Neumaier, Wolfgang E. Kaminski

Indirect DNA Readout by an H-NS Related Protein: Structure of the DNA Complex of the C-Terminal Domain of Ler

Tiago N. Cordeiro, Holger Schmidt, Cristina Madrid, Antonio Juárez, Pau Bernadó, Christian Griesinger, Jesús García, Miquel Pons

SH3 Domain-Mediated Recruitment of Host Cell Amphiphysins by Alphavirus nsP3 Promotes Viral RNA Replication

Maarit Neuvonen, Arunas Kazlauskas, Miika Martikainen, Ari Hinkkanen, Tero Ahola, Kalle Saksela

UDP-glucose 4, 6-dehydratase Activity Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity and Virulence of Candida albicans

Manimala Sen, Bhavin Shah, Srabanti Rakshit, Vijender Singh, Bhavna Padmanabhan, Manikandan Ponnusamy, Koteppa Pari, Ram Vishwakarma, Dipankar Nandi, Parag P. Sadhale

Antibody Evasion by a Gammaherpesvirus O-Glycan Shield

Bénédicte Machiels, Céline Lété, Antoine Guillaume, Jan Mast, Philip G. Stevenson, Alain Vanderplasschen, Laurent Gillet

A Kinase Chaperones Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly and Captures Capsid Dynamics in vitro

Chao Chen, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Adam Zlotnick

Down-Regulation of Shadoo in Prion Infections Traces a Pre-Clinical Event Inversely Related to PrPSc Accumulation

David Westaway, Sacha Genovesi, Nathalie Daude, Rebecca Brown, Agnes Lau, Inyoul Lee, Charles E. Mays, Janaky Coomaraswamy, Brenda Canine, Rose Pitstick, Allen Herbst, Jing Yang, Kerry W. S. Ko, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms, Stephen J. DeArmond, Debbie McKenzie, Leroy Hood, George A. Carlson

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Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Effector Avr3b is a Secreted NADH and ADP-ribose Pyrophosphorylase that Modulates Plant Immunity

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Novel Anti-bacterial Activities of β-defensin 1 in Human Platelets: Suppression of Pathogen Growth and Signaling of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

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Benjamin P. Howden, Christopher R. E. McEvoy, David L. Allen, Kyra Chua, Wei Gao, Paul F. Harrison, Jan Bell, Geoffrey Coombs, Vicki Bennett-Wood, Jessica L. Porter, Roy Robins-Browne, John K. Davies, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P. Stinear

CD4 T Cell Immunity Is Critical for the Control of Simian Varicella Virus Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of VZV Infection

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Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

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CD11b+, Ly6G+ Cells Produce Type I Interferon and Exhibit Tissue Protective Properties Following Peripheral Virus Infection

Matthew A. Fischer, Michael L. Davies, Irene E. Reider, Erica L. Heipertz, Melanie R. Epler, Janet J. Sei, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nico Van Rooijen, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Christopher C. Norbury

EBV Tegument Protein BNRF1 Disrupts DAXX-ATRX to Activate Viral Early Gene Transcription

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Towards a Structural Comprehension of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems: Characterization of the TssJ-TssM Complex of an Escherichia coli Pathovar

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Shifeng Zhu, Rae-Dong Jeong, Srivathsa C. Venugopal, Ludmila Lapchyk, DuRoy Navarre, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo

Assessing Predicted HIV-1 Replicative Capacity in a Clinical Setting

Roger D. Kouyos, Viktor von Wyl, Trevor Hinkley, Christos J. Petropoulos, Mojgan Haddad, Jeannette M. Whitcomb, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Cristina Cellerai, Thomas Klimkait, Huldrych F. Günthard, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

BST2/Tetherin Enhances Entry of Human Cytomegalovirus

Kasinath Viswanathan, M. Shane Smith, Daniel Malouli, Mandana Mansouri, Jay A. Nelson, Klaus Früh

Genomic Transition to Pathogenicity in Chytrid Fungi

Suzanne Joneson, Jason E. Stajich, Shin-Han Shiu, Erica Bree Rosenblum

The Critical Role of Notch Ligand Delta-like 1 in the Pathogenesis of Influenza A Virus (H1N1) Infection

Toshihiro Ito, Ronald M. Allen, William F. Carson IV, Matthew Schaller, Karen A. Cavassani, Cory M. Hogaboam, Nicholas W. Lukacs, Akihiro Matsukawa, Steven L. Kunkel

Sequence-Based Analysis Uncovers an Abundance of Non-Coding RNA in the Total Transcriptome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Kristine B. Arnvig, Iñaki Comas, Nicholas R. Thomson, Joanna Houghton, Helena I. Boshoff, Nicholas J. Croucher, Graham Rose, Timothy T. Perkins, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan, Douglas B. Young

Rab7A Is Required for Efficient Production of Infectious HIV-1

Marina Caillet, Katy Janvier, Annegret Pelchen–Matthews, Delphine Delcroix-Genête, Grégory Camus, Mark Marsh, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent

Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity

Georgina Fabro, Jens Steinbrenner, Mary Coates, Naveed Ishaque, Laura Baxter, David J. Studholme, Evelyn Körner, Rebecca L. Allen, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso, David Greenshields, Rita Lei, Jorge L. Badel, Marie-Cecile Caillaud, Kee-Hoon Sohn, Guido Van den Ackerveken, Jane E. Parker, Jim Beynon, Jonathan D. G. Jones

Fatal Prion Disease in a Mouse Model of Genetic E200K Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Yael Friedman-Levi, Zeev Meiner, Tamar Canello, Kati Frid, Gabor G. Kovacs, Herbert Budka, Dana Avrahami, Ruth Gabizon

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