Table of Contents

April 2011

For many pathogens with environmental stages, or those carried by vectors or intermediate hosts, transmission is strongly influenced by pathogen, host, and vector movements across complex landscapes like this one, a mountainous area in Sichuan Province, China, where delineated roads and streams, land use, and elevation may facilitate or limit pathogen or host mobility between the two marked villages. Genetic assignment tests provide a powerful means to estimate the magnitude and direction of key movements in infectious disease systems, revealing important ecological and environmental features that influence transmission (see Remais et al., doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002013).

Image Credit: Justin V. Remais, Emory University


Innate Immune Sensing of DNA

Shruti Sharma, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Research Articles

Low Diversity Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii Multilocus Sequence Types from Thailand Are Consistent with an Ancestral African Origin

Sitali P. Simwami, Kantarawee Khayhan, Daniel A. Henk, David M. Aanensen, Teun Boekhout, Ferry Hagen, Annemarie E. Brouwer, Thomas S. Harrison, Christl A. Donnelly, Matthew C. Fisher

NF-κB Hyper-Activation by HTLV-1 Tax Induces Cellular Senescence, but Can Be Alleviated by the Viral Anti-Sense Protein HBZ

Huijun Zhi, Liangpeng Yang, Yu-Liang Kuo, Yik-Khuan Ho, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Chou-Zen Giam

Completion of Hepatitis C Virus Replication Cycle in Heterokaryons Excludes Dominant Restrictions in Human Non-liver and Mouse Liver Cell Lines

Anne Frentzen, Kathrin Hüging, Julia Bitzegeio, Martina Friesland, Sibylle Haid, Juliane Gentzsch, Markus Hoffmann, Dirk Lindemann, Gert Zimmer, Florian Zielecki, Friedemann Weber, Eike Steinmann, Thomas Pietschmann

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Interferon Antagonist NS1 Protein Suppresses and Skews the Human T Lymphocyte Response

Shirin Munir, Philippa Hillyer, Cyril Le Nouën, Ursula J. Buchholz, Ronald L. Rabin, Peter L. Collins, Alexander Bukreyev

Engineered Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum Development in Transgenic Anopheles stephensi

Alison T. Isaacs, Fengwu Li, Nijole Jasinskiene, Xiaoguang Chen, Xavier Nirmala, Osvaldo Marinotti, Joseph M. Vinetz, Anthony A. James

The Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Protein CwpV is Antigenically Variable between Strains, but Exhibits Conserved Aggregation-Promoting Function

Catherine B. Reynolds, Jenny E. Emerson, Lucia de la Riva, Robert P. Fagan, Neil F. Fairweather

A Yersinia Effector with Enhanced Inhibitory Activity on the NF-κB Pathway Activates the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Inflammasome in Macrophages

Ying Zheng, Sarit Lilo, Igor E. Brodsky, Yue Zhang, Ruslan Medzhitov, Kenneth B. Marcu, James B. Bliska

A New Model to Produce Infectious Hepatitis C Virus without the Replication Requirement

Miriam Triyatni, Edward A. Berger, Bertrand Saunier

HYR1-Mediated Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species Is Required for Full Virulence in the Rice Blast Fungus

Kun Huang, Kirk J. Czymmek, Jeffrey L. Caplan, James A. Sweigard, Nicole M. Donofrio

Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Elicits a Type II Interferon-Like Host Cell Response That Depends on Activated STAT1 but Not Interferon-γ

Theresa Knoblach, Benedikt Grandel, Jana Seiler, Michael Nevels, Christina Paulus

Engineering HIV-Resistant Human CD4+ T Cells with CXCR4-Specific Zinc-Finger Nucleases

Craig B. Wilen, Jianbin Wang, John C. Tilton, Jeffrey C. Miller, Kenneth A. Kim, Edward J. Rebar, Scott A. Sherrill-Mix, Sean C. Patro, Anthony J. Secreto, Andrea P. O. Jordan, Gary Lee, Joshua Kahn, Pyone P. Aye, Bruce A. Bunnell, Andrew A. Lackner, James A. Hoxie, Gwenn A. Danet-Desnoyers, Frederic D. Bushman, James L. Riley, Philip D. Gregory, Carl H. June, Michael C. Holmes, Robert W. Doms

Structure-Function Analysis of the Anopheles gambiae LRIM1/APL1C Complex and its Interaction with Complement C3-Like Protein TEP1

Michael Povelones, Leanna M. Upton, Katarzyna A. Sala, George K. Christophides

SLO-1-Channels of Parasitic Nematodes Reconstitute Locomotor Behaviour and Emodepside Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 Loss of Function Mutants

Claudia Welz, Nina Krüger, Monika Schniederjans, Sandra M. Miltsch, Jürgen Krücken, Marcus Guest, Lindy Holden-Dye, Achim Harder, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna

Bacterial and Host Determinants of MAL Activation upon EPEC Infection: The Roles of Tir, ABRA, and FLRT3

Robert J. W. Heath, John M. Leong, Balázs Visegrády, Laura M. Machesky, Ramnik J. Xavier

Plasmodium knowlesi: Reservoir Hosts and Tracking the Emergence in Humans and Macaques

Kim-Sung Lee, Paul C. S. Divis, Siti Khatijah Zakaria, Asmad Matusop, Roynston A. Julin, David J. Conway, Janet Cox-Singh, Balbir Singh

Citrobacter rodentium is an Unstable Pathogen Showing Evidence of Significant Genomic Flux

Nicola K. Petty, Theresa Feltwell, Derek Pickard, Simon Clare, Ana L. Toribio, Maria Fookes, Kevin Roberts, Rita Monson, Satheesh Nair, Robert A. Kingsley, Richard Bulgin, Siouxsie Wiles, David Goulding, Thomas Keane, Craig Corton, Nicola Lennard, David Harris, David Willey, Richard Rance, Lu Yu, Jyoti S. Choudhary, Carol Churcher, Michael A. Quail, Julian Parkhill, Gad Frankel, Gordon Dougan, George P. C. Salmond, Nicholas R. Thomson

SUMO-Interacting Motifs of Human TRIM5α are Important for Antiviral Activity

Gloria Arriagada, Lucia N. Muntean, Stephen P. Goff