Table of Contents

November 2009

Over the past decade, chemokines have emerged as important components participating in host defense following viral infection by attracting antigen-specific lymphocytes into the CNS to control and eliminate the invading pathogen. However, how chemokines regulate recruitment of myeloid cells to the CNS in response to viral infection has not been well characterized. Hosking et al. provide evidence that ELR-positive chemokines attract neutrophils to the CNS by signaling through the receptor CXCR2. Early expression of CXCL1 (green staining) by glial cells, including astrocytes (red staining), within the microvasculature support early neutrophil recruitment required for optimal host defense (see Hosking et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000648).

Image Credit: Martin Hosking, University of California Irvine


Immunoglobulin Superfamily Virus Receptors and the Evolution of Adaptive Immunity

Terence S. Dermody, Eva Kirchner, Kristen M. Guglielmi, Thilo Stehle


The Photobiology of Microbial Pathogenesis

Alexander Idnurm, Sean Crosson


Research Articles

An Initial Step of GAS-Containing Autophagosome-Like Vacuoles Formation Requires Rab7

Hitomi Yamaguchi, Ichiro Nakagawa, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Atsuo Amano, Takeshi Noda, Tamotsu Yoshimori

The Salmonella SPI2 Effector SseI Mediates Long-Term Systemic Infection by Modulating Host Cell Migration

Laura M. McLaughlin, Gregory R. Govoni, Christiane Gerke, Smita Gopinath, Kaitian Peng, Grace Laidlaw, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Ha-Won Jeong, Zhigang Li, Matthew D. Brown, David B. Sacks, Denise Monack

Capturing a Flavivirus Pre-Fusion Intermediate

Bärbel Kaufmann, Paul R. Chipman, Heather A. Holdaway, Syd Johnson, Daved H. Fremont, Richard J. Kuhn, Michael S. Diamond, Michael G. Rossmann

Continuous Quinacrine Treatment Results in the Formation of Drug-Resistant Prions

Sina Ghaemmaghami, Misol Ahn, Pierre Lessard, Kurt Giles, Giuseppe Legname, Stephen J. DeArmond, Stanley B. Prusiner

Asymmetric Deactivation of HIV-1 gp41 following Fusion Inhibitor Binding

Kristen M. Kahle, H. Kirby Steger, Michael J. Root

IlsA, A Unique Surface Protein of Bacillus cereus Required for Iron Acquisition from Heme, Hemoglobin and Ferritin

Nadine Daou, Christophe Buisson, Michel Gohar, Jasmina Vidic, Hélène Bierne, Mireille Kallassy, Didier Lereclus, Christina Nielsen-LeRoux

Evidence That Two ATP-Dependent (Lon) Proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi Serve Different Functions

James L. Coleman, Laura I. Katona, Christopher Kuhlow, Alvaro Toledo, Nihal A. Okan, Rafal Tokarz, Jorge L. Benach

Gammaherpesvirus-Driven Plasma Cell Differentiation Regulates Virus Reactivation from Latently Infected B Lymphocytes

Xiaozhen Liang, Christopher M. Collins, Justin B. Mendel, Neal N. Iwakoshi, Samuel H. Speck

An Anaerobic-Type α-Ketoglutarate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Completes the Oxidative Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Anthony D. Baughn, Scott J. Garforth, Catherine Vilchèze, William R. Jacobs Jr.

Targeting the Replication Initiator of the Second Vibrio Chromosome: Towards Generation of Vibrionaceae-Specific Antimicrobial Agents

Yoshiharu Yamaichi, Stéphane Duigou, Elizabeth A. Shakhnovich, Matthew K. Waldor

Glypican-1 Mediates Both Prion Protein Lipid Raft Association and Disease Isoform Formation

David R. Taylor, Isobel J. Whitehouse, Nigel M. Hooper

Major Depletion of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in HIV-2 Infection, an Attenuated Form of HIV Disease

Rita Cavaleiro, António P. Baptista, Rui S. Soares, Rita Tendeiro, Russell B. Foxall, Perpétua Gomes, Rui M. M. Victorino, Ana E. Sousa

A Novel System of Cytoskeletal Elements in the Human Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

Barbara Waidner, Mara Specht, Felix Dempwolff, Katharina Haeberer, Sarah Schaetzle, Volker Speth, Manfred Kist, Peter L. Graumann

Variation in Antiviral Protection Mediated by Different Wolbachia Strains in Drosophila simulans

Sheree E. Osborne, Yi San Leong, Scott L. O'Neill, Karyn N. Johnson

Simian Varicella Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques Recapitulates Essential Features of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in Humans

Ilhem Messaoudi, Alexander Barron, Mary Wellish, Flora Engelmann, Alfred Legasse, Shannon Planer, Don Gilden, Janko Nikolich-Zugich, Ravi Mahalingam

Potential Benefits of Sequential Inhibitor-Mutagen Treatments of RNA Virus Infections

Celia Perales, Rubén Agudo, Hector Tejero, Susanna C. Manrubia, Esteban Domingo

Microglia Are Mediators of Borrelia burgdorferi–Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

Tereance A. Myers, Deepak Kaushal, Mario T. Philipp

The Bacterial Defensin Resistance Protein MprF Consists of Separable Domains for Lipid Lysinylation and Antimicrobial Peptide Repulsion

Christoph M. Ernst, Petra Staubitz, Nagendra N. Mishra, Soo-Jin Yang, Gabriele Hornig, Hubert Kalbacher, Arnold S. Bayer, Dirk Kraus, Andreas Peschel

A Protective Role for ELR+ Chemokines during Acute Viral Encephalomyelitis

Martin P. Hosking, Liping Liu, Richard M. Ransohoff, Thomas E. Lane

The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Triad3A Negatively Regulates the RIG-I/MAVS Signaling Pathway by Targeting TRAF3 for Degradation

Peyman Nakhaei, Thibault Mesplede, Mayra Solis, Qiang Sun, Tiejun Zhao, Long Yang, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Carl F. Ware, Rongtuan Lin, John Hiscott

Functional Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Streptococcal Invasion Locus (sil)

Ilia Belotserkovsky, Moshe Baruch, Asaf Peer, Eran Dov, Miriam Ravins, Inbal Mishalian, Merav Persky, Yoav Smith, Emanuel Hanski

Dynamics of HIV-1 Assembly and Release

Sergey Ivanchenko, William J. Godinez, Marko Lampe, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Roland Eils, Karl Rohr, Christoph Bräuchle, Barbara Müller, Don C. Lamb

TmpL, a Transmembrane Protein Required for Intracellular Redox Homeostasis and Virulence in a Plant and an Animal Fungal Pathogen

Kwang-Hyung Kim, Sven D. Willger, Sang-Wook Park, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, Nora Grahl, Yangrae Cho, Biswarup Mukhopadhyay, Robert A. Cramer Jr., Christopher B. Lawrence

Autogenous Translational Regulation of the Borna Disease Virus Negative Control Factor X from Polycistronic mRNA Using Host RNA Helicases

Yohei Watanabe, Naohiro Ohtaki, Yohei Hayashi, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Keizo Tomonaga