MyD88-dependent influx of monocytes and neutrophils impairs lymph node B cell responses to chikungunya virus infection via Irf5, Nos2 and Nox2
C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with PBS (mock) or 103 plaque forming units (PFU) of CHIKV 181/25 or AF15561 in the left footpad, and the dLN was analyzed at 24 hpi. (A) Representative flow cytometry plots and numbers of (B) CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes or (C) CD11bhiLy6C+Ly6G+ neutrophils in the dLN. (D) Frozen dLN sections were stained for ERTR7+ stromal cells (red), B220+ B cells (blue), or Gr-1+ monocytes and neutrophils (white). Errors bars represent mean ± SEM. Data are combined from or representative of 5 (A-C) or 2 (D) independent experiments (n = 15–21 (A-C) or 2–3 (D) mice per group). Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-test (*, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001).