Virus interactions with bacteria: Partners in the infectious dance
(A) Binding of influenza A virus to bacteria enhances bacterial adhesion to eukaryotic cells. (B) Binding of multiple poliovirus virions to bacteria results in enhanced coinfection and genetic recombination, giving rise to reassortant viruses. (C) Poliovirus binding to LPS enhances its affinity for PVR and binding of human norovirus to bacterial histo-blood group antigens promotes infection. (D) Binding of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by picornaviruses and mammalian reovirus enhances virion thermostability. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; PVR, poliovirus receptor.