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The coronavirus macrodomain is required to prevent PARP-mediated inhibition of virus replication and enhancement of IFN expression

Fig 3

Several PARPs are highly upregulated by MHV infection and IFN treatment in BMDMs.

(A) BMDMs were infected with WT or N1347A MHV and collected at 18 hpi. PARP expression was determined by RT-qPCR using primers listed in S3 Table and normalized to HPRT. PARP2 and PARP16 were undetectable and are not shown. (B) BMDMs isolated from WT, MAVS-/-, or IFNAR-/- mice were infected with WT or N1347A virus. Cells were collected at 18 hpi, and RNA levels of selected PARPs were determined by RT-qPCR and normalized to HPRT mRNA levels. (C) BMDMs from WT or IFNAR-/- mice were mock treated or treated with 1000 U IFN╬▓ for 8 h, and RNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and normalized to HPRT. PARPs 6 and 8 fell below the limit of detection and are not shown. The data in (A-C) show one experiment representative of two independent experiments; n = 3.

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007756.g003