Interferon-beta expression and type I interferon receptor signaling of hepatocytes prevent hepatic necrosis and virus dissemination in Coxsackievirus B3-infected mice
IFN-βwt/Δβ-luc mice (A-C) or C57BL/6 mice (D-F) were infected i.p. with 2 × 104 PFU CVB3 and (A) luciferase activity was analyzed at the indicated time points by in vivo imaging. One representative mouse is shown. (B) Quantification of bioluminescence imaging in selected regions of interest (ROI) for upper abdominal (red) and cervical region (blue). Results are pooled from three independent experiments (n = 3–6). Values are mean ± SD. One-Way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. (C) IFN-βwt/Δβ-luc mice were perfused with PBS at 0, 2, 4, and 7 dpi (n = 3–9). Spleen, cervical lymph nodes (cLN), liver, pancreas, salivary glands, and heart were prepared, homogenized, and the reporter activity was determined. Values are mean ± SD. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. (D-F) Mice were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 7 dpi (n = 3–6). Homogenates from liver and pancreas were assessed for (D) IFN-β, (E) IFN-α, and (F) IFN-λ protein levels by ELISA methods. Pooled data from two independent experiments are shown. Bars depict median. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis, *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.