Para-cresol production by Clostridium difficile affects microbial diversity and membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria
Healthy human donor stool samples were emulsified and treated with exogenously added p-cresol (0.1% or 0.3% v/v) for 90 minutes and the CFU counts were expressed as percentage survival relative to the CFU of the PBS control at t = 0. Faecal emulsions were plated onto differentially selective agar to determine the survival of endogenous intestinal bacteria to p-cresol stress. Error bars are representative of triplicate experiments. Statistical analysis was performed by linear regression to determine the correlation between survival in 0.1% and 0.3% (v/v) p-cresol relative to the PBS control. Significant differences are indicated with ***p<0.001. Error bars are Standard error of the Mean (SEM).