Para-cresol production by Clostridium difficile affects microbial diversity and membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria
The diversity of the intestinal microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA sequencing to determine the bacterial operational taxonomic units present during a relapse model of C. difficile infection. a) Composition of the intestinal microbiota, at the Family level, between wild type C. difficile 630Δerm and p-cresol mutant (hpdC::CT) infected mice and the naïve control at day 7 post-infection, day 0, day 2 and day 4 post relapse. b) Box and whisker plots displaying the total number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the Family level. Statistically significant differences between the diversity of OTU’s are labelled * p<0.05 (ANOVA). c) Principle component analysis of the microbial diversity at the Family level. Each dot represents a single mouse at a given time point, colour-coded for day 7 post-infection, and days 0, day 2 and day 4 post-relapse. d) The relative prevalence of bacterial Class in wild type C. difficile and hpdC::CT infected mice at day 7 post-infection, day 0, day 2 and day 4 post relapse. Statistical analysis was performed in Stata15 by regression analysis taking strain and bacterial class into consideration * p<0.05.