Para-cresol production by Clostridium difficile affects microbial diversity and membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria
Relative fitness of C. difficile 630Δerm and hpdC::CT when grown in co-culture with gut commensals, with and without 0.05% (v/v) p-cresol. The relative fitness of 630Δerm and hpdC::CT grown in co-culture with a&b) E. coli, c&d) E. faecium, e&f) L. fermentum (e&f). Viable counts are represented by CFU/ml and displayed as a percentage of the total culture. Error bars are representative of three independent replicates. Regression analysis was used to determine significant differences in growth taking strain and media into consideration ***p<0.001.