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Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus

Fig 9

Functional characterization of diverse ORF8 and ORF8a proteins of bat SARSr-CoVs.

(A) The ORF8 proteins of SARS-CoV and bat SARSr-CoVs induces the ATF6-dependent transcriptional activity. HeLa cells were transiently transfected with the pcAGGS expression plasmids of the ORF8 of SARS-CoV GZ02, bat SARSr-CoV Rf1, WIV1 and Rf4092 and the reporter plasmid 5×ATF6-GL3 for 40h. Control cells were co-transfected with the reporter plasmid and the empty pCAGGS vector for 24h, and treated with or without TM (2μg/ml) for an additional 16h. The cell lysates were harvested for dual luciferase assay and data are shown as the average values from triplicate wells. (B) The ORF8a proteins of SARS-CoV and bat SARSr-CoV triggered apoptosis. 293T cells were transfected with the expression plasmids of the ORF8a of SARS-CoV Tor2 and bat SARSr-CoV Rs4084 and a pcAGGS vector control for 24h. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry after annexin V staining and the percentage of apoptotic cells were calculated. Data are shown as the average values from triplicate cells. Error bars indicate SDs. * P<0.05.

Fig 9