A Novel Mouse Model of Schistosoma haematobium Egg-Induced Immunopathology
Intramural injection of S. haematobium eggs results in rapid and localized injection site response followed by progressive expansion and consolidation over several weeks (serial micro-ultrasonography of a single representative animal, A–D; histology, E–H). Lymphoid follicles in H are marked with arrowheads. Scale bars for panels E, I, J, and L (lower right hand corner for each) are 100 microns long. Immunohistochemical characterization demonstrates central macrophage granuloma formation around injected eggs (arrows) with peripheral accumulation of other inflammatory cells (I–K, anti-CD68 brown). Epithelioid cells (activated macrophages) are indicated with arrowheads. Egg injection also induces early and sustained urothelial hyperplasia with reactive nuclear changes (L–O).