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Activation of Akt Signaling Reduces the Prevalence and Intensity of Malaria Parasite Infection and Lifespan in Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes

Figure 5

Resistance of heterozygous transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes to P. falciparum infection.

Heterozygous transgenic (TG) and non-transgenic (NTG) sibling mosquitoes were provided with an artificial bloodmeal containing P. falciparum NF54 gametocytes. Ten days after infection, the midguts were dissected and the number of P. falciparum oocysts counted. The experiment was replicated three times with separate cohorts of mosquitoes. A. Infection prevalence was defined as the percentage of mosquitoes that had at least one oocyst on the midgut. Parasite prevalence was significantly lower in transgenic mosquitoes compared to the nontransgenic control (** indicates p<0.0001, * indicates p = 0.0008). B. Summary statistics of the parasite data from all three experiments including zeros or excluding zeros (mosquitoes without oocysts). Analyses were performed for each replicate separately and for all three replicates combined. When zeros were omitted, the small number of transgenic mosquitoes infected with at least one parasite (n = 1–14) obviated statistical analysis.

Figure 5