About the Authors

Yi-Pin Lin

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Infectious Diseases, New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York, United States of America

Xi Tan

Contributed equally to this work with: Xi Tan, Jennifer A. Caine

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Jennifer A. Caine

Contributed equally to this work with: Xi Tan, Jennifer A. Caine

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, and Center for Infectious Disease Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

Mildred Castellanos

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation

Affiliation Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

George Chaconas

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Jenifer Coburn

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

jcoburn@mcw.edu (JC); John.Leong@tufts.edu (JML)

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, and Center for Infectious Disease Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

John M. Leong

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

jcoburn@mcw.edu (JC); John.Leong@tufts.edu (JML)

Affiliation Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.