About the Authors

Matthias Hoffmann

Contributed equally to this work with: Matthias Hoffmann, Nikos Pantazis, Genevieve E. Martin

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Kantonsspital, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Nikos Pantazis

Contributed equally to this work with: Matthias Hoffmann, Nikos Pantazis, Genevieve E. Martin

Affiliations Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece, MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, London, United Kingdom

Genevieve E. Martin

Contributed equally to this work with: Matthias Hoffmann, Nikos Pantazis, Genevieve E. Martin

Affiliation Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Stephen Hickling

Affiliation Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Jacob Hurst

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, The Oxford Martin School, Oxford, United Kingdom

Jodi Meyerowitz

Affiliation Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Christian B. Willberg

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

Nicola Robinson

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

Helen Brown

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

Martin Fisher

† Deceased.

Affiliation Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton, United Kingdom

Sabine Kinloch

Affiliation Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Abdel Babiker

Affiliation MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, London, United Kingdom

Jonathan Weber

Affiliation Division of Medicine, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

Nneka Nwokolo

Affiliation Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Julie Fox

Affiliation Department of Genitourinary Medicine and Infectious Disease, Guys and St Thomas' NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

Sarah Fidler

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Division of Medicine, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

Rodney Phillips

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, The Oxford Martin School, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

John Frater

john.frater@ndm.ox.ac.uk

‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom, The Oxford Martin School, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

SPARTAC and CHERUB Investigators

Membership of the SPARTAC and CHERUB Investigators is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Competing Interests

We were unable to contact Stephen Hickling, listed as an author of this paper, to confirm his involvement in the latest version. The corresponding author, John Frater, has therefore supplied the information regarding his contribution to the manuscript and his competing interests and it is correct to the best of his knowledge. The authors are not aware of any other potential conflict of interest associated with this manuscript.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MH NP GEM SH SF JW AB RP CBW JFr. Performed the experiments: GEM SH MH JM NR HB. Analyzed the data: NP JH MH JFr SH GEM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NP JH. Wrote the paper: MH NP GEM SK NN JFr SF JFo. Recruited patients: MF JFo SF NN SK.