About the Authors

Shigeki Nakamura

Affiliations Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan

Mikhail Shchepetov

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Ankur B. Dalia

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Sarah E. Clark

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Timothy F. Murphy

Affiliations Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

Sanjay Sethi

Affiliations Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

Janet R. Gilsdorf

Affiliation Departments of Epidemiology, Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Arnold L. Smith

Affiliation Center for Childhood Infections, Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Jeffery N. Weiser

weiser@mail.med.upenn.edu

Affiliation Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SN SEC JNW. Performed the experiments: SN MS SEC. Analyzed the data: SN SEC ALS JNW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ABD TFM SS JRG ALS. Wrote the paper: SN JNW.