About the Authors

Shigeto Yoshida

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: shigeto@jichi.ac.jp

Affiliation Division of Medical Zoology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan

Yohei Shimada

Affiliation Division of Medical Zoology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan

Daisuke Kondoh

Affiliation Division of Medical Zoology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan

Yoshiaki Kouzuma

Affiliation College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki, Japan

Anil K Ghosh

Affiliation Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Affiliation Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Robert E Sinden

Affiliation Infection and Immunity Section, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SY conceived and designed the experiments. All authors performed the experiments. SY, MJL, and RES analyzed the data and wrote the paper.