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Public perceptions About Foreign Investment, A PLS-SEM Analysis toward republic sustainable infrastructure

Abstract

Over the years, Pakistan and China have developed strong bilateral trade and economic linkages. China Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC) is a multidimensional development plan, encircling several diverse projects and the Chinese government is going to invest a huge amount in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor on several different projects. CPEC is an approach toward economic stability for both countries in the globalized world and is known as a game changer in this region. In the present study China-Pakistan economics door has been discussed, to check the CPEC implementations situation, its restraints, challenges, and benefits. An empirical process was adopted to check public opinion about it with aimed public perceptions About Foreign Investment, A PLS-SEM Analysis toward republic sustainable infrastructure. PLS-SEM direct path analysis revealed that there is direct relationship among IV and DV, these results offer support to hypotheses H1-H6 accepted. We have also looked at the levels of education and gender of the respondents as control variables, gender and education showed insignificant relationships with CPEC. It means there is no direct relationship between gender and education to DV. Age significantly moderates the relationship of CPEC associated with IV, depicts the moderation role of age on the relationship, under this research H2a and H3a have significant relationships with age as a moderator while other moderators did not show any relationship. In the current study, there is a significant relationship among all parameters, and there is a medium to strong correlation between diverse variables. The study showed that CPEC will have positive and strong impacts on the economic development of both countries and public of Pakistan consider it can open many doors for them for education, jobs and tourism. This study can help policy makers to make policy to make more effective policy in this are for sustainable development.

Introduction

The public’s viewpoint is essential to governments and public servants because it provides the ultimate deciding factor in policy choices and legislators must accurately gauge the public’s sentiment as a whole Mobasher et al. [1]. By doing so, they may make decisions in line with the public interest and steer clear of potentially harmful courses of action. Due to the ease of access to platforms like social media and the media, public opinion has emerged as a potent weapon for modifying policy and impacting the decisions of elected officials [2, 3]. What the public thinks and feels about a certain issue, political group, policy, or leader is the primary focus of population opinion research. There is a common misconception that it is difficult to accurately gauge public opinion because of the diversity of opinions that exist [4]. Nonetheless, especially democratically elected officials must have had a deep understanding of the public’s perspective on leadership and policy problems. Pakistan’s public opinion research landscape is dismal, both in government and academia. Robust bilateral trade, cooperation, and economic linkages between Pakistan and the P.R. China developed years ago [5]. In the matter of imports and export, China has progressively emerged as a key trading partner of Pakistan. Mutual trade and marketable relations between the Pakistan and China were reputable in January 1963 when the two countries signed their first joint long-term trade agreement (GOP, 2014). Both countries have walked into a novel stage of the firm network as the vision of the economic corridor is successfully pragmatic. Pak-China economic corridor is in process and termed to be an evolving dynamic program of 21st century which take up a nexus between the Indian Ocean and Asian continent by encompassing its functions to adjoining East, Western, South, Cen, trial and Asian parts. Strategies for Pakistan-China economic cooperation areas under the plan seem to have been established in the mid of 2000s, with a proposal to make an Economic Corridor from Gwadar in Balochistan to Kashgar in the Western Chinese province of Sinkiang. In 2013 CPEC was launched by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between China and Pakistan Qureshi et al. [6] heavy worth of $46 billion has been mind on in this project. CPEC is a multidimensional development plan, that encircles several diverse projects. These include primarily the following: (a) linkages, which cover quite leading of 3000 km road and railway line from Kashghar, in Western China, to Gwadar Pakistani, with the construction of deep-sea port and airport; (b) structuring an information network; (c) Reduce energy demand in Pakistan by cooperation; (d) industry and (e) developments in agriculture. In all these projects the linkages are important to China, though they serve Pakistan and also cover its interests like investment in the energy sector of Pakistan. Therefore, the projects have a mutual interest for both countries. The already started implementation of CPEC seems both sides in different phases till 2030 [6]. Corridors were–and are–two important developments, one is built in the port at Gwadar, and there is creating surface transport linkage between Gwadar and Kashgar. The CPEC will boost the GDP rate by 1.5% in the next 3 years. Furthermore, it will also incur private investment up to 0.5% of the GDP of Pakistan, environment, enhanced infrastructure, economic opportunities, stable economy, and energy generation. The combined impact of investment would be from ring 2016 to and is expected to be beyond 6% per year [7]. CPEC has an impact on trades and investors in Pakistan, numerous indigenous people, and the environment, if all expectation from the project is realized; this will bring momentous benefit to Pakistan. Additionally, a linkage corridor could generate future rights of passageway under international law for China [6]. The proposed location of CPEC is at the intersection of the Road Belt and the Maritime Belt, making it a cortical position [8]. China’s future prosperity depends on maintaining a stable energy supply from Africa and the Middle East, and this change will allow the country to establish and solidify a presence in the Indian Ocean [9]. China views regional connectivity as a prerequisite for making an international impact. In 2014 address to the Communist Party’s Foreign Affairs Committee, President Xi pledged to prioritize relations with neighboring countries. An additional aspect of the approach is to establish ties with emerging economies that are wealthy in resources (energy, specifically). As a neutral partner, it will back Chinese goods [10]. There are, however, constraints on CPEC that must be taken into account. These include the opportunity cost of land, the cost of dislocating people, the nature of the terrain, the fact that a portion of the road already exists, environmental concerns, and security concerns [11]. As per some scholars, Pakistan and China are making great cooperation in CPEC projects, but there are so kind of issues and threats to these projects like the security situation in Pakistan, political barriers, other countries’ interferences, different industry structures, and trade imbalance among duo countries, ecological environments along the corridors and poor foreign investment situation in Pakistan, whatever Pakistan will be able to ensure to complete these projects, these are real risks, threats and challenges in the successful completion of these projects [1215]. At the same time, Pakistan’s determination and China’s government strategy for the development of the western region and friendly cooperation among both countries are key factors for the development of CPEC [6, 16]. In the present study, the empirical process was ago adopted to check the public opinion of Pakistan to CPEC, some other studies already done in the same area like Huang Delin narrated in his previous study for the successful implementation of China-Pakistan corridors both countries are encountering some challenges and restrain, at the same time public opinion is a foundation for CPEC in the current situation [17]. Some people think of public opinion as a collection of people’s shared viewpoints, while others see it as the sum of people’s divergent or conflicting opinions. Considered to be part of this category are the views of citizens who fall under the purview of governments and to whom they should pay some attention. Public opinion, according to American sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, is "more than a philosophical word" [18]. It’s the continuous cycle of communication and influence among the people that make up a society. All the thoughts, feelings, and opinions about a that have emerged through a group of people operating together [19]. When it comes to public issues, everyone is obligated to have and voice an opinion. It lacks positivity and objectivity and is usually uninformed. However, the fact that many others hold the same view lends credibility to it [18].

The objectives of this study were i) A PLS-SEM approach to determine public visions about Chinese investment in Pakistan; ii); in Pakistan Economics Corridors (CPEC) and opportunities for duo countries and regions. iii) The difference in impact between DV and IV could be moderated by age. Moderators increase the link between the independent and dependent variables in a sample, and gender and educational attainment are two important demographic factors that might serve as moderators [2022]. As a result, we suggest that there is a significant moderation effect of age on the relationship between EO (H1a), JO (H2a), TO (H3a), GDP-G (H4a), ED (H5a), SD (H6a) and CPEC. Based on our literature review, we developed the following hypothesis (Fig 1).

  • H1; Education opportunities are directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H1a; Age has a moderate association between Education opportunities and China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H2; Job opportunities are directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H2a; Age has a moderate association between job opportunities and China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H3; Tourism opportunities are directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H3a; Age has a moderate association between tourism opportunities and China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H4; GDP Growth is directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H4a; Age level has a moderate association between GDP growth and China Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H5; Economy development is directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H5a; Age has a moderate association between economic development and China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H6; Sustainable development is directly associated with China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).
  • H6a; Education level has a moderate association between sustainable development and China-Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC).

Materials and methods

The present research was based mainly on primary data. The study involved collecting and analyzing data at various stages of the research process. The proposed research paid attention to the o empirical study of public opinion on China-Pakistan economic corridor. Public opinion must be very important, especially in a democratic country, that’s why Government always positively respects public opinion [23]. In the present time, there are several ways to express our way of feeling and thinking especially through social media [24]. In the present study, public opinion data were collected by an empirical process with the help of a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was developed with the help of experts and available literature. the primary data were gathered through an online questionnaire distributed to young individuals and professionals from Pakistan. The study sample included 620 respondents. Targeted people for the interviews were those who are directly or indirectly have a relationship with this area i.e., professors of international relations researchers and to some extent, some students who conducted their research in this field of study. The study used convenience sampling for deciding the study’s sample due to its benefits and easiness of reaching respondents of the survey. It also saves time and effort, and cost too. The study used the 5-point Likert scale to collect the responses from the study respondents for its five concepts. The main components of the questionnaire were Education Opportunities; Job Opportunities; Tourism Opportunities; GDP Growth; Economy Development; Sustainable Development and information about Chand in Pakistan’s Economic Corridors. Finally, concerning the questionnaire, we used a set of measures previously developed by different researchers in the English language; it was thus necessary to convert the questionnaire into Urdu (local language) and verify its quality before sending it to the respondents. To this end, the questionnaire was initially sent to 20 people to determine its quality. The data collected through questionnaire/interview was processed using SPSS Version 25 and smart PLS. To explore the properties of the data and sample characteristics, descriptive statistics and frequencies were analyzed. This research was completed at School of Public Administration, Xiangtan University China. All participants provided informed consent. This study was authorized by the Academic Ethics Committee of the School of Public Administration of Xiangtan University.

Since PLS-SEM is one of the most effective methods for predicting outcomes [25], it is commonly used for data analysis to check the relationship between variables. This is because PLS-SEM is the method most often recommended for predicting and assessing explained variables to account for the largest potential variance. PLS-SEM allows for a smaller sample size than other methods while still producing reliable results. In addition, it can process all the models in parallel, both internally and externally. Using this approach of data collecting, it is also possible to analyze intricate route models [26]. Recent academic research suggests that the PLS-SEM approach’s [20] popularity in management science may be attributable to the advantages it offers. This suggests that the PLS-SEM methodology would be the most appropriate for this investigation. In light of the model’s treatment of non-linear account interactions, a two-stage analysis is more fruitful. To guarantee the precision and consistency of the construct evaluations, a PLS-based approach to route modeling is tested in two separate ways. Prior to constructing an inner model or relationship between the latent components, a structural model’s validity and reliability are assessed.

Data analysis

This research-based on public views and attention about Chinese investment in Pakistan (CPEC), we used the following parameters to check people’s views about its education opportunities; job opportunities; tourism opportunities; GDP growth; economy development; sustainable development, and China Pakistan economic corridors. A total number of 620 completed questionnaires were collected to analyze the future of the relationship between DV, IV, and Moderator. The creation of public opinion is a laborious and time-consuming process. Opinion formation is a lengthy process that requires more than a few weeks or months, often up to several years. Consensus-based articulation of current concerns or new policy matters requiring rapid action. Public opinion, however, is dynamic at best. Public opinion is always shifting as a result of things including education, experience, and group identification [18]. Before starting statistical analysis, it is important to check credibility, validity and multivariate assumptions, at the same time some other validity like convergent and discriminant validity were conducted as well [25]. One of the famous and well-known analyses for data reliability Cronbach’s alpha was used first to check data credibility and as per results education opportunities α = 0.731; job opportunities α = 0.692; tourism opportunities α = 0.787; GDP growth α = 0.827; economy development α = 0.882; sustainable development α = 0.883 and China Pakistan economic corridors α = 0913 (Table 1, Fig 2). Both the average variance extracted, also known as AVE, and the composite reliability, also known as CR, are measures used to reflect the level of variance in indicators compensated for by the latent construct. Both of these measures are abbreviated as AVE and CR, respectively. Factor loading values of all latent were included which must be greater for it to be considered significant [25, 27]. These results show that the dataset has adequate information for further research. The second phase of the PLS-SEM assessment process, which is divided into several parts, is the analysis of the structural model. The predictive relevance of the model, multicollinearity, the empirical importance of the path coefficients, and the level of confidence are some factors that should be taken into account when examining the structural path model. Additionally, it is crucial to assess the structural route model’s dependability. This study evaluated the structural model by using the guidelines provided by Hair Jr et al. [26] to understand the data. We have put a model through its paces to investigate the direct impact that a variety of factors have on CPEC. As a result, the results of the PLS-SEM path analysis (Fig 3) indicated an R2 value of 0.789 and Q2 value is 0.616 which showed our model was fit (Table 4).

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Fig 2. Measurement model, orange color laten = DV, Blue color latent = IV.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277673.g002

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Fig 3. PLS-SEM path model, orange color laten = DV, Blue color latent = IV.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277673.g003

Fornell-Larcker and HTMT ratios are used to evaluate the proposed model’s discriminant validity [25, 26]. Discriminant validity was confirmed using the Fornell-Larcker criterion, as shown by the maximum significant correlation of variables in each column in Table 2. Fornell & Larcker [28]. The HTMT ratio technique was offered as an alternative approach to establishing discriminant validity [29]. They argued that although the Fornell-Larcker criteria worked well for gauging discriminant validity, it did not differentiate between the presence and lack of discriminant validity. As a result, the HTMT is now commonly used to evaluate discriminant validity. The HTMT values for all of the investigated variables are listed in Table 3. Since PLS-SEM is one of the most effective approaches to predicting outcomes [25], it is commonly used for data analysis to check the relationship between variables. This is because PLS-SEM is the recommended method for predicting and assessing explained variables to account for the largest potential variance. PLS-SEM allows for a smaller sample size to be used while still producing high-quality results compared to alternative methods. On top of that, it supports simultaneous internal and external processing across all models. Using this type of information gathering is also possible to investigate complex route models [26]. Recent academic research suggests that the PLS-SEM approach’s popularity in management science may be at least largely attributable to its potential advantages [20]. Therefore, it seems like the PLS-SEM method would be the ideal choice for this investigation. As the model has non-linear account interactions, a two-stage analysis is more fruitful. Two separate evaluations of a PLS-based route modeling strategy are conducted to guarantee the precision and consistency of the analyzed constructs. Convergent validity is tested first, then a structural model is tested to establish a hypothesized internal model or connection among the latent components [29].

PLS-SEM was applied to check the relationship among variables education opportunities (EO); job opportunities (JO); tourism opportunities (TO); GDP growth (GDP-G); economy development (ED); sustainable development (SD) and China Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC). First, we checked the offered hypotheses by examining the established relationships between the different factors. Then, we performed a bootstrapping test with 5,000 replicates to evaluate if our findings were consistent with the hypothesis. PLS-SEM direct path analysis revealed EO -> CPEC (β = 0.125; p<0.000), JO -> CPEC (β = 0.485; p<0.000), TO -> CPEC (β = 0.345; p<0.000), GDP-G -> CPEC (β = -0.111 p<0.001), ED -> CPEC (β = 0.157; p<0.000), SD-> CPEC (β = -0.054; p<0.028) are significant. The established hypotheses H1-H6 are strengthened by these findings. Moreover, we have examined the respondents’ educational backgrounds and gender as additional confounding factors. Gender (β = -0.002; p<0.931) and education (β = -0.007; p<0.698) showed insignificant relationships with CPEC. This suggests that neither gender nor educational level predicts DV (Table 4 and Fig 3).

It is widely accepted that the public’s perspective is very vital for decision-making, especially in democracies. However, governments in places like Pakistan, where public input is limited and most decisions are made at the top, make choices first and then tell the public. The public’s perspective is not taken into account at any point in the decision-making process, not even on topics of public importance. As a result, we stress just those elements we believe will contribute most to the success and well-being of the nation. As a result, information is skewed by either downplaying the risks and difficulties or up playing the advantages. So, the opposition must highlight the problem areas of the ruling. The last step of the PLS-SEM study consisted of determining moderation between DV and IV. Categorical moderation is assessed in PLS-SEM so that we can investigate hypotheses ranging from H1a to H6a. Study results revealed a small moderation effect in the relationships between understudy independent and dependent variables. Age significantly moderates the relationship of CPEC associated with IV, depicts the moderation role of age on the relationship between EO*age -> CPEC (β = -0.008; p<0.766), JO*age -> CPEC (β = -0.111; p<0.004), TO*age -> CPEC (β = 0.104; p<0.017), GDP-G*age -> CPEC (β = -0.006; p<0.848), ED*age -> CPEC (β = 0.037; p<0.249) and SD*age -> CPEC (β = -0.025; p<0.447), Under this research H2a and H3a have significant relationships with age as a moderator while other moderators did not show any relationship of moderator (Table 5; Fig 4).

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Fig 4. Moderator (age); red color latent are control variables; light green color is moderator; orange color latent are significant moderators.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277673.g004

The correlation was used for mathematical models to describe a realistic relationship between components. This study provides a forecasting tool as well as a strategy for determining the type of relationship that exists between the variables. Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed on multivariate parameters, and the findings are displayed in the highlighted numbers. All of the criteria show a strong to a moderate positive relationship. Table 4 displays descriptive statistics and correlation coefficient values for education opportunities (EO); job opportunities (JO); tourism opportunities (TO); GDP growth (GDP-G); economy development (ED); sustainable development (SD) and China Pakistan economic corridors (CPEC), gender and education and age. Correlation is a method for examining the relationship between two or more variables. The correlation coefficients vary from +1.0 to -1.00. The strength of the link is determined by the magnitude of the number, with 1 being the greatest. In the current study, there is a significant relationship among all parameters, and there is a medium to strong correlation between diverse variables. A weak to moderate association among all of the variables tested demonstrated relevance for all of them (Table 6).

Discussion

Making up one’s mind is a tough task for any country, and therefore it cannot be left to the efforts of a single entity. Since the advent of social media, information has spread rapidly and easily. Spread the word and everyone will know about your amazing adventure! [30]. The public, representatives of civil society, the armed forces, and civilian institutions must work together to control and counter-manage public opinion. The public has to be kept up-to-date on the progress of the many CPEC-related projects at every stage of their development and execution [31]. China’s strategy of opening up and developing its western regions will benefit greatly from the proposed economic corridor due to its proximity to these areas. As regional economic integration continues to advance, the CPEC can aid in the growth of tighter ties and cooperative endeavors between China and the nations of southern, central, and western Asia. A pipeline from Gwadar to China across the Karakoram would provide an alternative for the supply of oil from the Middle East to China’s western and central provinces, in particular, as most of China’s oil imports currently travel through the Strait of Malacca, which is vulnerable to piracy and geopolitical qualms. Potentially beneficial to Pakistan’s economy, the planned Economic Corridor deserves serious consideration. Due to the country’s acute energy crises, Pakistan has seen a sharp decline in foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent years, and the industrial sector is far underperforming its potential. As an additional measure, the proposed oil and gas pipelines from Gwadar and Iran to Kashgar via Pakistan will help alleviate the country’s energy shortages. As Pakistan is strategically located at the crossroads of massive supplying and consuming markets in the Middle East, Central Asia, and China, the proposed corridor has the potential to provide enormous transit returns, effectively rewriting the economic rebirth of Pakistan. With China’s financial backing for infrastructure development, Pakistan may be transformed into a regional commercial hub and energy transportation corridor thanks to corridor [32, 33]. All of these factors have the potential to significantly affect Pakistan’s industrial, agricultural, and economic development. Every day, China increases its position as the world’s greatest exporter and the world’s second-largest importer [34]. Its trading partners span the globe, including the rest of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas.

China-Pakistan duo are friendly and cooperative in different fields, due to CPEC China is investing a lot of money in Pakistan for the new infrastructure like, roads, power production, railways, hospital, airports, universities and many more which are directly or indirectly will have very positive impacts on the urban and rural life of Pakistan, that’s why CPEC called as a game changer [35, 36]. Because Pakistan is a developing country and has a low GDP rate compared to China, China can do much more for the redevelopment of this country, this time Pakistan is not only facing a huge population rate but due to a high rate of population and migration rate to big cities, there are a lot of problems related to urbanization like traffic issues, medical facilities, unemployment, problems related to water and land issues. Under this research, we tried to find out normal public views about CPEC and what they think about it. The results of this research support our all hypotheses. It is important to know public views about CPEC’s impacts on their life-related job opportunities and education opportunities. The tourism industry is very important for any country and has had a very positive impact on a country’s GDP [3739]. The people of Pakistan think under these projects there will be more opportunities for both nations to visit each other countries. Some other indicators also showed significant relationships with CPEC from per public point of view. As described China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is an international endeavor advantageous for China and Pakistan and the edifice of Gwadar is a vital project to CPEC. Analysts believed that this special economic zone would increase Pakistan’s economy and annual GDP rate. The living standards of the Gwadar zone will change, and the local economy and people ‘s living conditions will surely be greatly improved. These projects will provide jobs and more and more people will get employment in both countries. In China, it will also generate lots of employment opportunities in the ten regions of China the skilled workers and high-tech technicians. Meanwhile, it will also advance China ‘s logistics industry.

Policy implication

This study was one of the few to investigate the concept of information and public opinion about CPEC and its relationship with six variables Education Opportunities; Job Opportunities; Tourism Opportunities; GDP Growth; Economy Development; Sustainable Development and information. China is not only neighbor of Pakistan but also remained a good friend throughout the history of both nations. Recently China is investing a lot of money in Pakistan for CPEC and no doubt it will be a game changer for both countries. Along with the process of regional economic integration, the CPEC would help in the development of closer relations and cooperation between China and the countries of Southern, Central, and Western Asia.

This study discussed some projects of CPEC and its impacts on Pakistan redevelopment. Here are some policy implications two to achieve transparency and accountability should be ensured in every project. Revenue generated by all these commercial activities should be appropriately invested in every sector and region. Monitoring mechanisms the urban development should be guaranteed to implement such strategies and policies which are required for improvement. Pakistan needs to attract more investors to invest in the Pak-China corridor and for that Pakistan must ensure political stability in the region within its capacity and conquer security challenges. Under Pak-China partnership, CPEC passing through Gilgit should open opportunities for local traders early, with all the urban redevelopment project in other cities which includes health, education and infrastructure should provide just as many benefits to Pakistan as to China. The influx of cheap goods is expected which might affect our industry. What policies the industrial government is going to implement will decide the future of many cities and Pakistan in general. Chinese companies in waste management, water quality monitoring, land planning, water resources management, and purification water plant should also come to Pakistan. They can invest in these sectors; it will be a positive and healthy sign for Chinese companies to generate revenue and for Pakistan it will help the redevelopment of these sectors.

Pakistan is a developing country and trying to make development in every sector of life. To have a good and friendly country is one blessing. Under China Pakistan economic corridors both countries can get benefits and they can make strong ties with each other. China is a big economy and many countries depend on China due to many reasons. Under these projects, there will be a huge network of roads and railways which can help Pakistan’s local industry to have deep connections with China [5, 40, 41]. It’s not only about trade relations, under these projects many students can go to China for higher study and vice versa. The collaboration between China and Pakistan brought economic benefits, this is not only a road but there also some kind of other projects such as railways, power energy projects, and the operationalization of Gwadar port along with Gwadar airport and Hospitals. This is a kind of fruit that will bring benefits for both countries and will help in an energy crisis, increase the GDP of duo countries, and development in infrastructure. With the help of these corridors, China will save energy and time and it will short route from China to the Persian Gulf. By Kashgar to Gwadar route China can reach there in ten days, which needed to be 45 days before. The geostrategic status of duo countries for local connectivity and reduced trade routes will be increased in substantial terms. No doubt CPEC will turn out to develop a project of an extraordinary scale, these projects will be a positive sign for regional changes, domestic change, and development, and by this Pak-China friendship will move towards a community of destiny. The people-to-people relation is very low in both nations. Civilizational dialogue (via people-to-people exchanges, scientific and educational exchanges), and the promotion of Silk Road heritage and tourism must play a fundamental role in the CPEC to ensure its success, as was the case with the ancient Silk Road. The administration of infrastructure and transportation projects should be based on the basis of shared desire established via these conversations, which in turn leads to an atmosphere of shared understanding, open debate, and shared objectives.

Conclusions

This research-based on public views and attention about Chinese investment in Pakistan (CPEC), we used the following parameters to check people’s views about its education opportunities; job opportunities; tourism opportunities; GDP growth; economy development; sustainable development, and China Pakistan economic corridors. A total number of 620 completed questionnaires were collected to analyze the future of the relationship between DV, IV, and Moderator. The data was analyzed with the help of PLS-SEM and SPSS then conclusions and suggestions were made based on the study. As per results of this research EO -> CPEC; JO -> CPEC; TO -> CPEC; GDP-G -> CPEC; ED -> CPEC and SD-> CPEC showed significant relationships. H1-H6 is accepted under this research. There are also weak to moderate correlations between all variables. The study showed that CPEC will have positive and strong impacts on the economic development of both countries, but some challenges and tasks should be considered too while fictionalization of these projects and showed that the public of Pakistan is much satisfied and happy with these projects and looking forward for the stable political situation in Pakistan and successful completion of these projects. There are some limitations in this study, for instance, the collected data may be increased and some policymakers and officers from foreign policy and CPEC related should be interviewed for further study. All the limitations and problems were left for further discussion.

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