A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.
A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.
Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.
Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.
Citation: Wolfe D, Kanji S, Yazdi F, Barbeau P, Rice D, Beck A, et al. (2020) Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations. PLoS ONE 15(4): e0231883. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231883
Editor: Francisco X. Real, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, SPAIN
Received: January 29, 2020; Accepted: April 2, 2020; Published: April 17, 2020
Copyright: © 2020 Wolfe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: This work was supported by a team grant (awarded to authors DM and BH) from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research through the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39389.html). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: We have read the journal's policy and the authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: BH has previously received honoraria from Eversana (previously Cornerstone Research Group) for provision of methodologic advice related to the conduct of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal cause of hospitalization, with over 230,000 cases per year leading to hospitalization in the United States . Drug-related causes of AP are rare (0.1–2% of cases) , but occasionally can be life threatening. Knowledge of drugs with the potential to cause AP may aid in clinician awareness of this uncommon etiology, resulting in prevented re-administration of the offending medication and avoided patient harm.
Several publications have listed the drugs more commonly associated with AP [3–5,2,6,7]. However, a comprehensive review of the literature to identify drugs with potential associations has not been conducted since 2006 . We aimed to update the previous systematic review of case reports by Badalov et al.  to develop a current list of drugs with potential associations with AP. However, early in our work we identified several limitations in the reporting of that review that prevented the performance of a formal review update. Consequently, a full systematic review of the case report literature from inception was performed to identify all rigorously diagnosed cases of AP that were suspected cases of drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP). With these data, we sought to classify the suspected drugs according to the level of evidence available upon which a potential association could be based.
A systematic review protocol was developed a priori and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017060473). Our approach to data synthesis deviated from the protocol after we realized that the drug classification system used by Badalov et al.  was data driven and specific to the previous review, and that a more rigorous and global classification system was needed.
Research question addressed
This review addressed the following primary research question: “What drugs have potential associations with drug-induced pancreatitis? What level of evidence is available for these associations?”
Study eligibility criteria
The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study design (PICOS) framework was used to identify eligible cases. Details of the criteria established a priori were as follows:
- Population. Only human patients, with no restrictions on age or other demographics.
- Intervention and comparator. Any drug that was suspected of causing acute pancreatitis in the reported case was of interest. Drug combinations were excluded (e.g., combination HIV therapy, cancer chemotherapy regimens). An exception was made for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as these drugs are routinely administered in the same relative proportions. Where multiple drugs were administered prior to AP, we included cases in which the authors implicated an individual drug and excluded cases in which a combination of drugs or their interaction were suspected of causing the AP. We excluded herbal products, vaccines, poisons, and insecticides. Based on the criteria used by Badalov et al. , we limited inclusion to those cases that reported the name and dosage of the drug thought to cause the AP. No comparator was required.
- Outcomes. We deviated from the review by Badalov et al  in that we included only cases that diagnosed acute pancreatitis (AP) using accepted criteria . These criteria were initially published in 2006, the year in which Badalov et al. conducted their review. At least two of the following three features were required to be present for a diagnosis of AP to be upheld and a case included:
- ○. Typical clinical symptoms (e.g., epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting);
- ○. Serum amylase or lipase elevated at least three times the upper limit of normal (ULN). When the ULN was not reported, we used an ULN of 160 units/l for both amylase and lipase  (i.e., the reported amylase and/or lipase must have been >480 units/l for the criteria of serum amylase or lipase > three times the ULN to be accepted);
- ○. Characteristic imaging findings of AP on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or transabdominal ultrasonography.
The etiologic cause of the AP must have been reported as being a drug exposure, with drug exposure occurring prior to the development of signs of AP. The time between initiation of drug administration and occurrence of AP (the latency) must have been reported. We did not discriminate according to the efforts that were undertaken to determine causality or the likelihood of the association. Cases suspected of having chronic pancreatitis with a drug-induced exacerbation were excluded.
- Study design. We included only case reports and case series published in full text. Reviews of cases previously published in the literature were excluded to avoid case duplication. Letters to the editor were included, if all other criteria for inclusion were satisfied.
Searching the literature
An experienced medical information specialist (BS) developed and tested the search strategy using an iterative process in consultation with the review team. Another senior information specialist peer reviewed the strategy prior to execution using the PRESS Checklist . We conducted several systematic reviews related to drug-induced pancreatitis concurrently and utilized the same base strategy for all. We performed separate searches for primary studies (for the concurrent systematic reviews) and case reports. Using the Ovid platform, we searched Ovid MEDLINE®, including Epub Ahead of Print and In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase Classic+Embase. The Cochrane Library on Wiley, was also searched for primary studies alone. All database searches were performed on 31 January 2017, with a search update on 28 March 2019. We undertook a grey literature search of clinical practice guideline registries, the TRIP database, and Google Scholar on 9–10 March 2017.
We incorporated controlled vocabulary (e.g., “Pancreatitis/ci [chemically induced]”, “Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions”) and keywords (e.g., “drug-induced pancreatitis”, “adverse effect”, “detection”) into the searches. We applied research design filters for both primary studies and case reports. Vocabulary and syntax were adjusted across the databases. No date or language limits were applied to either of the searches, but we removed animal-only and opinion pieces, where possible, from the results (opinion pieces retained for the case report search).
Specific details regarding the strategies are provided in S1 Text. References identified by the case report search were de-duplicated against the references identified in the primary study search to reduce reference screening load.
Process of study selection
A two-stage study selection process was used: all titles and abstracts were initially screened for potential relevance, with full texts of the potentially relevant references being screened subsequently. Screening at both stages was conducted independently by two reviewers, with included references requiring assessment by only one reviewer at Stage 1, but agreement of both reviewers required for inclusion at Stage 2. Agreement of both reviewers was required for exclusion at both stages. The online systematic review software DistillerSR (Evidence Partners Inc., Ottawa, Canada) was used to operationalize screening, using forms developed by the review team that were piloted prior to both stages of screening to maximize reviewer agreement. Conflicts were resolved by consensus, with consultation with a third independent reviewer if necessary.
Data extraction and risk of bias assessment
Data were extracted in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp, Seattle, WA), using an extraction template that was initially piloted by two users on a set of five randomly selected case reports and adjusted as necessary. Five reviewers extracted data, and each conducted a pilot to improve agreement between extractors. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer.
Data elements collected during the extraction process included the following:
- Author, year of publication, and country of case;
- Patients’ key characteristics, including age, sex, underlying comorbidities, presence of renal dysfunction or other risk factors;
- Reported drug of association, including dosage and/or whether the case was an overdose related to a suicide attempt;
- Reported latency (i.e., the time from first drug exposure to the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis);
- Criteria for AP diagnosis, including presence/absence of typical symptoms, elevated amylase/lipase levels, and abnormalities on imaging, laparotomy, or autopsy;
- Exclusion of other causes of AP, including alcohol, biliary causes, hypertriglyderidemia/hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, autoimmune causes, genetic causes, anatomic causes, trauma, viral causes, other drugs, and other causes;
- Presence/absence of a formal causality assessment; and
- Presence/absence of a re-challenge.
For data elements related to exclusion of other causes of AP, the extracted data were constrained to a set of predefined response options (i.e., “Yes,” “No,” “Unclear,” and blank), using the data validation tool in Excel. Constraint of response options at the data collection phase was considered necessary to simplify drug classification at the data synthesis phase, given the high number of included case reports expected. “Yes” was was selected to indicate that a specific cause had been worked up and excluded. “No” was selected if a cause had been worked up and could not be excluded (e.g., hypertriglyceridemia at presentation that may have been present prior to drug exposure). Where a cause was worked up and the findings were not clearly interpretable, “Unclear” was selected. A blank response indicated the cause had not been reported in the publication. For each case report, the decision regarding whether a specific cause was excluded or not was based mainly upon the case report authors’ interpretation and their reported normal ranges (e.g., hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercalcaemia). If normal ranges were not provided, we referred to published sources . We did not infer whether the non-drug causes had been worked up sufficiently to current standards to allow exclusion (e.g., whether currently accepted testing had been conducted to eliminate biliary causes, whether all relevant viruses had been eliminated with appropriate testing). Some non-drug causes required definition. Alcohol as a cause of AP was considered only to be chronic alcohol abuse or acute alcohol toxicity, as defined by the case report author, and not any alcohol use. Alcoholism as a cause was assumed to be excluded in patients under 18 years of age. A positive result for any autoimmune, genetic, or viral test elicited a “No” response for exclusion of that cause. However, when all autoimmune, genetic, or viral testing was negative, a “Yes” response was selected, regardless if all testing for that cause had been conducted. Any mention of family history of pancreatitis or hyperlipidemia, whether negative or positive, elicited a “Yes” or “No” response, respectively, regarding exclusion. Anatomic causes (e.g., irregularities of the pancreatic duct, pancreas divisum) were considered excluded if specifically mentioned as absent in imaging findings.
We critically scrutinized each case report in detail to make inferences as to whether other drugs were sufficiently excluded as a potential cause of the AP. We considered other drugs to have been excluded if (1) an effort had been made to report that other drugs were not associated (e.g., the authors stated that no AP case reports associated with the other drug(s) had been published to date); (2) the patient wasn't taking other drugs; (3) the patient was taking other drugs but they were continued/restarted without a recurrence of AP; or (4) a formal causality assessment was conducted specific to the drug of interest (e.g., using Naranjo criteria ) that indicated that the drug of interest was the probable or definite cause and other drugs assessed with the same criteria were not. Other drugs were not considered to have been excluded if (1) the authors stated that they couldn't exclude other drugs or (2) treatment with other drugs was temporally associated with an initial AP episode and AP recurred, while the patient was taking both the drug of interest and the other drug(s), with the authors not providing clear reasoning as to why the other drugs should be excluded. An “Unclear” response was warranted for all other cases.
Underlying diseases or conditions that may predispose a patient to AP were extracted, including the following: inflammatory bowel disease (i.e., Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), diabetes mellitus, liver disease (e.g., any viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholangitis, liver transplant, Alagille’s Syndrome, signs of ascites and/or jaundice), HIV/AIDS, dyslipidemia (e.g., hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia), immunologic disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune pancreatitis, optic neuritis), and renal dysfunction that could potentially lead to reduced drug clearance (e.g., end-stage renal disease, acute or chronic renal disease/insufficiency/failure, glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal transplant +/- rejection, renal carcinoma, nephrolithiasis, prior drug nephrotoxicity, dialysis treatment, membranous glomerulopathy, metastatic involvement of kidney, nephrectomy, pyelonephritis, other renal insufficiency). The presence of an overdose, whether intentional or unintentional, was also extracted, although we did not compare the dose of the administered drug to current label dosages.
Data pertaining to formal causality assessment were extracted, including the name of the tool used and the outcome of the assessment. Following data extraction, case reports were manually screened for duplicates by sorting on patient and publication characteristics to ensure duplication was not present in our final database.
A tool has recently been proposed to assess the methodological quality of case reports and case series included in systematic reviews . This tool proposes broad explanatory questions similar to the detailed criteria that we used either during study selection (e.g., only cases using accepted criteria for AP diagnosis and with complete reporting of drug dosage and latency were included) or to assess DIP causality in our included cases. Given that the questions in the tool considered most critical to assessment of methodological quality in our review context had already been assessed and accounted for, we elected not to conduct a separate risk of bias evaluation.
Summarizing the evidence
Descriptive statistics of publication characteristics and patient demographic variables were estimated. Case report data were grouped by the drug suspected to have caused the case of AP. Drugs were grouped, based on discussion with our clinical experts. Drugs were not separated by route of administration (e.g., oral and aerosolized pentamidine were considered the same drug). Oral contraceptives were grouped together, as the component combinations may be numerous and the mechanism of causing AP was likely the same. However, other single-component estrogen-like therapies were considered as separate medications (e.g., diethylstilbestrol). Asparaginase medications were grouped as some case reports did not clarify the type of asparaginase administered (e.g., obtained from Erwinia chrysanthemi versus Escherichia coli, pegylated versus non-pegylated asparaginase). Cases involving interferon alpha and beta were grouped separately, as were all corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, etc.).
Within each drug grouping, case reports were assessed according to the classification criteria described in Table 1. No validated classification criteria exist that assess the level of evidence of an association of a drug with AP. Our criteria were developed a priori by the review team, loosely based upon the data-driven classification system reported by Badalov et al. . Because the Badalov system was derived from their review data and not developed a priori, there were classification gaps in which some drugs could fall if the system were to be used on a different set of data. The classification system used in the current review was structured to close these gaps. Additionally, our system has limited the impact of publication bias in the reporting of case reports (e.g., reporting of potential cases of DIP for some drugs may increase based upon perceptions of potential associations in the medical community). Drugs having multiple case reports associated with them are recognized as having a greater potential association than those with single case reports. However, beyond this, there is no arbitrary number of case reports required to increase the level of evidence of an association. Ultimately, we defined six drug classes based upon (1) evidence of a positive re-challenge, (2) a simplified measure of the rigour of the causality assessment conducted (i.e., whether three other main causes of AP—alcohol, biliary, and hypertriglyceridemia/hyperlipidemia—and all other drugs were conclusively ruled out as causes of DIP), and (3) the consistency of the latency for drugs for which cases with a either a positive rechallenge or a rigorous causality assessment were not reported. We used latency categories based upon those presented by Badalov et al.  (e.g., <24 hours, 1–30 days, >30 days), and have defined “consistent latency” as >75% of case reports for a drug falling into the same latency category. We conducted sensitivity analyses to evaluate (1) the impact of requiring positive imaging findings in the diagnosis of AP, and (2) the impact of requiring all ten causes of AP to be excluded instead of only four for a diagnosis of DIP in classes Ia and Ic. Classification of drugs was aided by the filtering tool in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Seattle, WA).
Latency data were categorized and the predominant latency category was identified for each drug (i.e., the latency category in which the majority of cases for each drug fell). The latency consistency of a drug was defined as the proportion of its cases that fell in its predominant latency category. Drugs represented by two cases that fell in two different latency categories were assigned a consistency of 0%.
A total of 596 publications were included, encompassing 713 unique cases and 213 unique drugs (Fig 1); detailed listings of included studies and excluded studies are provided in S3 Text and S4 Text, respectively. The characteristics of the included case reports and the demographics of the included patients are presented in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. The case report publication rate was highest from 1990 to 1999 (n = 241, 24.1 cases/year), and has slowed in recent years (2010–early 2019: 19.1 cases/year). In most case reports, the causes of AP that were excluded to arrive at a diagnosis of DIP were poorly reported, with only two recent case reports having data reported for all ten non-drug causes for which we extracted data [14,15]. Similarly, 81% of cases did not conduct a formal causality assessment. Overall, 182 of 190 re-challenges that were conducted resulted in a recurrence of AP (96%). However, re-challenge was not performed for most cases, with many citing the ethical concerns of knowingly re-administering a drug with the potential to cause a life-threatening condition.
Half of all cases (n = 358; 50%) had at least one primary underlying condition or risk factor for pancreatitis listed in Table 3. Thirty-nine percent (n = 275) had at least one primary underlying condition identified as necessary to rule out before a drug etiology should be considered. In addition, 53 patients (7%) had renal insufficiency and one (0.1%) had hepatosteatosis, which may alter drug clearance or metabolism, respectively, increasing the risk of adverse drug reactions; 47 patients (7%) had had a cholecystectomy, which may influence exocrine pancreatic dynamics; and 6 patients (0.8%) had had a previous episode of pancreatitis. Seven cholecystectomized patients had an opioid or opioid receptor agonist implicated (15%), four oral hypoglycemic agent implicated, and three a tetracycline derivative implicated. Four percent of DIP cases (n = 29) were due to intentional or unintentional overdose, with another three cases being unclear as to whether there was an overdose. Ninety-eight cases (14%) did not fully report ruling out all other drugs as potential causes, calling into question the drug ultimately identified as the causative agent.
The 213 unique drugs implicated in the case reports were categorized according to our a priori classification scheme (Table 4). Similar numbers of drugs met the criteria of Classes Ia, Ib, and Ic (n = 45, 46, and 54, respectively). Most drugs with multiple case reports were categorized in these upper classes, with few remaining to be categorized as Class II (n = 6) or III (n = 5). More than a quarter of drugs were found in single case reports that did not have either exclusion of other causes of AP or a positive rechallenge and were categorized as Class IV (n = 57; 27%).
Negative re-challenge (i.e., no recurrence of AP upon re-administration of the drug) occurred in eight cases representing eight different drugs—all-trans retinoic acid, brentuximab vedotin, clozapine, interferon alpha, L-asparaginase, sorafenib, tacrolimus, and valproic acid—in different drug classes. All but brentuximab vedotin had been implicated in other case reports. Two of the eight cases with negative re-challenges were identified to have a “probable” association with the reported drug on using either the Naranjo criteria  or criteria of Delcenseri et al.  (brentuximab vedotin and L-asparaginase).
A drug-level summary of the identified case reports is provided in the review supplement (S5 Text), as is a comprehensive summary of the latency data associated with all agents and number of cases meeting the class criteria for eachd drug. A summary of key information for each of the drug classes (as outlined in Table 1) is provided in the following sections.
Identified Class Ia drugs
Forty-five drugs were classified as Class Ia from 344 case reports (48%), for a median of 4 case reports per drug (mean = 7.6; mode = 1; range = 1–56). Twelve drugs were included in Class Ia based on one case report each. The three drugs reported in the highest number of cases were valproic acid (n = 56), L-asparaginase (n = 34), and 5-ASA (n = 31). Predominant latency categories, in order of frequency of occurrence amongst the 45 drugs, were 1–30 days (n = 27 drugs), >30 days (n = 14 drugs), and <24 hours (n = 4 drugs). The median latency consistency amongst the 34 drugs with multiple case reports was 75%.
Causality was assessed for 25 drugs (56% of Class Ia drugs) in 64 cases (19% of Class Ia cases). Four drugs demonstrated less than probable likelihoods of causation that were assessed in single case reports: acetaminophen (likely), captopril (possible), tetracycline (possible), and valproic acid (plausible). All other drugs for which causality was assessed demonstrated probable or definite likelihood in at least one case report.
Forty-three percent of the 344 cases (n = 147) had an underlying condition that may have predisposed them to AP. Twenty-three cases (7%) had possible renal dysfunction that may have contributed to poor drug clearance and a predisposition to a drug reaction. Thirteen cases had both an underlying condition and renal dysfunction potentially predisposing them to both AP and a drug reaction.
Identified Class Ib drugs
Forty-six drugs were classified as Class Ib from 175 case reports (26%), for a median of 2 case reports per drug (mean = 3.9; mode = 1; range = 1–20). The three drugs reported in the highest number of cases were pentamidine (n = 20), stibogluconate (n = 18), and propofol (n = 12). Predominant latency categories, in order of frequency of occurrence amongst the 46 drugs, were 1–30 days (n = 30 drugs), >30 days (n = 14 drugs), and <24 hours (n = 2 drugs). The median latency consistency for the 31 drugs with multiple case reports was 80%.
Causality was assessed for 16 drugs (35% of Class Ib drugs) in 20 cases (11% of Class Ib cases. Three drugs demonstrated less than probable likelihoods of causation that were assessed in single case reports: clozapine, didanosine, and lamivudine were all assessed as possible. All other drugs for which causality was assessed demonstrated probable or definite likelihood in at least one case report.
Forty-one percent of the 175 cases (n = 72) in the Class Ib category had an underlying condition that may have predisposed them to AP. Twelve cases (7%) had underlying renal dysfunction that may have contributed to poor drug clearance and a predisposition to a drug reaction. Five cases had both an underlying condition and renal dysfunction potentially predisposing them to both AP and a drug reaction.
Identified Class Ic drugs
Fifty-three drugs were classified as Class Ic from 106 case reports (15%), for a median of 1 case report per drug (mean = 2.0; mode = 1; range = 1–10). The four drugs reported in the highest number of cases were olanzapine (n = 10), clarithromycin (n = 5), liraglutide (n = 5), and minocycline (n = 5). Predominant latency categories, in order of frequency of occurrence amongst the 53 drugs, were 1–30 days (n = 31 drugs), >30 days (n = 19 drugs), and <24 hours (n = 10 drugs). The median latency consistency for the 26 drugs with multiple case reports was 71%.
Causality was assessed for 24 drugs (45% of Class Ic drugs) in 37 cases (35% of Class Ic cases. The following drugs demonstrated only possible likelihood of causation in at least one case report: clarithromycin, liraglutide, minocycline, nilotinib, and riluzole. All other drugs for which causality was assessed demonstrated probable or definite likelihood in all assessed case reports.
Thirty-five percent of the 94 cases (n = 33) in the Class Ic category had an underlying condition that may have predisposed them to AP. Thirteen cases (25%) had had a previous cholecystectomy. Ten cases (19%) had underlying renal dysfunction that may have contributed to poor drug clearance and a predisposition to a drug reaction. Four cases had both an underlying condition (diabetes) and renal dysfunction potentially predisposing them to both AP and a drug reaction.
Identified Class II drugs
Six drugs were classified as Class II from 18 case reports (3%), including ceftriaxone (n = 5 cases), exenatide (n = 3), isotretinoin (n = 3), sitagliptin (n = 3), clofibrate (n = 2), and levetiracetam (n = 2). Three drugs had a predominant latency category of 1–30 days and three had a predominant latency cateogroy of >30 days. By definition for this drug class, all drugs had 100% latency consistency.
Causality was assessed for two drugs, exenatide and levetiracetam, both of which demonstrated probable likelihood of causation.
Ten of the 18 cases (56%) in the Class II category had at least one underlying condition that may have predisposed them to AP. Three cases (17%) had underlying renal dysfunction that may have contributed to poor drug clearance and a predisposition to a drug reaction. Two cases had both an underlying condition and renal dysfunction potentially predisposing it to both AP and a drug reaction. Four patients (22%) had had a cholecystectomy.
Identified Class III drugs
Five drugs were classified as Class III from 13 case reports (2%), including gold (n = 4), acetylsalicylic acid (n = 3), nivolumab (n = 2), ondansetron (n = 2), and tacrolimus (n = 2). Latency consistency was 0% for the three drugs with two case reports each (i.e., both cases for each drug had different latencies); for the other two drugs, the median latency consistency was 71%.
Causality was assessed for one drug, tacrolimus, which demonstrated a probable likelihood of causation for one case.
The four cases with DIP due to gold had an immune disorder (all rheumatoid arthritis) that may have predisposed them to AP. No other cases had an underlying illness associated with AP or had reported risk factors for AP.
Identified Class IV drugs
Fifty-seven drugs were classified as Class IV from single case reports (27% of all drugs; 8% of all cases). Latency was 1–30 days for 31 drugs, >30 days for 19 drugs, and <24 hours for 7 drugs. Re-challenge was conducted in one case report and was negative (brentuximab vedotin). Causality was assessed for 15 drugs (26% of Class IV drugs). Three drugs demonstrated less than probable likelihood of causation: alendronate, calcium carbonate, and ciprofibrate, all of which were assessed as possible. All other drugs for which causality was assessed demonstrated probable likelihood of causation.
Twenty-three of the 57 cases (40%) in the Class IV category had at least one underlying condition that may have predisposed them to AP. Two of these cases had multiple conditions associated with AP. Three cases (5%) had had a previous cholecystectomy. Five cases (9%) had underlying renal dysfunction that may have contributed to poor drug clearance and a predisposition to a drug reaction. Two cases had both an underlying condition and renal dysfunction potentially predisposing them to both AP and a drug reaction.
When more stringent diagnostic criteria for AP were applied to the included cases (i.e., positive imaging), 429 of 713 cases (60%) met the restricted criteria, implicating 160 of 213 drugs (75%). The following numbers of drugs were found in each class:
- Class Ia: 31 drugs (from 45 drugs before imaging restriction)
- Class Ib: 33 drugs (from 46), four of which had been Class Ia drugs (all-trans-retinoic acid, cimetidine, interferon alpha, and thalidomide)
- Class Ic: 43 drugs (from 53), two of which had been Class Ia drugs (erythromycin and olsalazine) and two of which had been Class Ib drugs (amiodarone and paclitaxel)
- Class II: five drugs (from 6), one of which had been a Class Ib drug (stibogluconate)
- Class III: six drugs (from 5), two of which had been Class Ib drugs (carbamazepine and pentamidine)
- Class IV: 42 drugs (from 57), two of which had been Class Ia drugs (prednisone and sulindac), two of which had been Class Ib drugs (oxyphenbutazone and risperidone), three of which had been Class Ic drugs (bortezomib, metolazone, and naltrexone), and one of which had been a Class II drug (levetiracetam).
Fifty-three drugs were no longer associated with DIP, when cases were restricted to require positive imaging. Of these drugs, six were Class Ia (bezafibrate, metronidazole, orlistat, procainamide, ranitidine, and vemurafenib), eleven each were Class Ib and Class Ic, one each were Class II and III, and the remaining 23 were Class IV. More detailed lists of drugs from this sensitivity analysis can be found in the supplement (S6 Text).
When we required all ten causes of AP to be excluded instead of only four for a diagnosis of DIP, only two recently published cases met the more rigorous diagnostic criteria for DIP [14,15]. These two cases implicated amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and propofol, respectively. None of the remaining 711 cases met the more stringent DIP diagnostic criteria.
Several works have been published that have reviewed drugs associated with acute pancreatitis, both narratively and systematically [3–7], the most recent of which was published by Badalov et al. in 2007 . Our initial goal was to update this review; however, early in the review we identified limitations in the reporting of the previous review’s methods that prevented the conduct of a simple update. Consequently, we undertook a full systematic review of the case report literature, in its entirety, using rigorous systematic review methods. Our search strategy differed from that of Badalov et al.  in that we searched multiple databases, and ultimately included English, French, and Spanish publications. We used more strict screening criteria initially to capture only cases of AP based upon currently accepted diagnostic criteria , which corresponded to the “definite” and “probable” cases ultimately analyzed by Badalov et al . However, we excluded cases in which a combination of drugs was the attributed cause of DIP, while Badalov et al. retained them. To synthesize the case reports, we adjusted the drug classification scheme proposed by Badalov et al., making all drug classes mutually exclusive. For classes II–IV, the revised scheme eliminated the classification criteria based upon arbitrary numbers of case reports published for a drug and focused instead on whether multiple (Classes II and III) or single (Class IV) case reports had been published. Our review identified substantially more drugs potentially associated with AP.
While a large number of drugs with potential associations with AP were identified in this review, these potential associations were based upon (a) cases that may not have had AP, and (b) cases of AP that had not completely excluded all non-drug causes of AP. All cases included in our review met currently accepted criteria for AP diagnosis; however, when more stringent diagnostic criteria were applied for the diagnosis of AP (i.e., positive imaging), the number of drugs associated with AP dropped by 25% (n = 160), suggesting that more rigorous evidence is required to confirm associations. Secondly, in our drug classification scheme, as partial assessment of causality, we followed the criteria proposed by Badalov et al.  and required exclusion of only four other causes of AP (i.e., alcohol, hypertriglyceridemia/hyperlipidemia, gallstones, and other drugs) rather than requiring exclusion of the remaining six non-drug causes proposed by our content experts (i.e., hypercalcemia, genetic/hereditary, anatomic, trauma, viral, and autoimmune causes). Had we required exclusion of all non-drug causes, only two drugs would have met the criteria of Classes Ia or Ic. In other words, the diagnosis of DIP was not conclusive in any of the 711 cases identified by authors as DIP in the literature. This sensitivity analysis demonstrates the tenuous level of evidence upon which DIP associations are often based and the contribution of comorbid conditions.
Awareness of all other possible non-drug causes of AP amongst clinicians may also influence formal causality assessment. The Naranjo algorithm, the most frequently encountered causality assessment tool in our set of included case reports, includes an assessment of whether all alternative etiologies of AP were excluded. However, if clinicians are unaware of all possible alternative causes of AP or the appropriate tests for their exclusion, then the final Naranjo score that determines the probability of causation may be inflated. Similarly, the probability of causation may be inflated when the prior probability of the event is not considered  (e.g., consideration of an inherent increased risk of AP in a patient due to factors such as the underlying disease for which the drug was administered, comorbidities, or concomitant drugs, and interactions of these factors). As well, valuable information regarding these other risk factors may be lost, if causation is distilled down to a simple probability level in causality assessment. Like a causality assessment, our drug classification system considers re-occurrence of AP upon re-challenge indicative of a higher level of evidence of an association. However, ethical concerns often prevent clinicians from knowingly reinitiating treatments suspected of causing potentially life-threatening conditions like DIP. In our classification system, the absence of a positive re-challenge may occur for one of two reasons—no re-challenge was conducted or the presence of a negative re-challenge. However, our system did not penalize drugs that had a case with a negative re-challenge. We must recognize some of the limitations of causality assessment and not over-interpret the findings.
The complex relationships amongst underlying diseases, comorbidities, and concomitant drugs, as well as the difficulty in excluding all non-drug causes of AP and the constraints on re-challenge make final diagnosis of DIP extremely difficult. Case reports and the associations generated from their synthesis should be recognized as fallible. The evidence base upon which associations between drugs and AP are made could be bolstered through systematic review of observational studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of individual drugs identified by case report review as having potential associations with AP. In RCTs, the control arm of patients with similar underlying diseases, comorbidities, and concomitant medications as those in the drug intervention arm reduces or eliminates the effects of these factors. Thus, the risk of AP due to the suspected drug is more easily discerned through the confounding factors and often is different from that gleaned from case report data. For example, an association between oral hypoglycemics and AP has been speculated based upon numerous published case reports [73–75,126,159,287–290,427–431,491,506,604]; however, systematic review and/or meta-analysis of trial data have demonstrated no association with AP for vildagliptin alone  or for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) as a group (i.e., vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin, and dutogliptin) . Another systematic review of various study designs concluded that AP during oral hypoglycemic therapy was a rare event and that if an association exists, it is not as strong as originally thought . Similarly, meta-analyses of cohort and case-control study data have been recently published, refuting an association between statins and AP, of which several were implicated in cases included in our review . Given recent efforts to evaluate associations between individual drug categories and AP, we considered categorizing the drugs implicated in our review by the AHFS system. However, ultimately, we consciously elected not to categorize and risk potentially promoting inferences about specific drug categories that were based upon low-quality evidence. Instead, we encourage the reader to explore the raw data set as well as the supplement available online.
There are strengths and limitations of the current review to be noted. In terms of strengths, we have ensured that the methods of our systematic review have been transparently reported to facilitate future updating within this area of active publication. We updated the study selection criteria of the previously published review  by including only those case reports that satisfied the Atlanta criteria for AP diagnosis . However, we retained the previous review’s requirement to exclude cases for which drug dosages were not reported, which may have restricted the volume of data available for synthesis to some degree. As well, while we excluded cases for which the implicated cause was a combination of drugs, in our included cases, it is possible that other drugs taken in proximity to or concurrently with the drug implicated by the authors could have made the patient more susceptible to the effects of the implicated drug. The same patient taking the same drug without exposure to another drug may not have experienced AP. As a strength, our drug classification system has eliminated some ambiguity in the previous system that was based upon the data extracted . However, the classification system has some limitations. Firstly, we did not assess the testing methods used in case reports to exclude non-drug causes of AP because these data were often poorly reported. As such, older cases may have been misdiagnosed as DIP because the available testing wasn’t sufficiently sensitive to identify some non-drug causes of AP, such as biliary sludge and crystal formation. Secondly, the classification system does not consider patients’ underlying diseases. Some conditions for which drugs are administered may predispose patients to develop AP (e.g., HIV/AIDS ) or be susceptible to drug-induced adverse events (e.g., renal dysfunction). Almost half of all cases included in this review had an underlying disease that may have predisposed them to AP. We have presented data regarding the presence of underlying conditions to guide readers. Finally, drugs implicated in multiple case reports were classified based upon the case report meeting the highest criteria for classification, rather than the median class for the group. With this method of classification, drugs can never be demoted as further case reports are published, a potential limitation for updating the review. Future updates may need to consider data from study designs other than case reports (e.g., meta-analyses of adverse event data from trials) for drugs with demonstrated ambiguous associations (e.g., oral hypoglycemics). However, it should be noted that while meta-analysis of adverse event data from RCTs may help to discern the relationship between a drug and DIP, these analyses are often limited by the complexity of diagnosis of AP and the lack of detailed reporting of adverse events within these trials. Finally, while this review incorporated extensive efforts to find a large amount of information to be dissected to meet our objectives, it must be kept in mind that the type of evidence reviewed (i.e., case reports) remains at the bottom of the hierarchy of evidence and, thus, has inherent limitations for inferences.
Although the rate of publication of case reports has lowered in the past decade, we continue to identify drugs with new associations with AP and new evidence to bolster or refute previously suspected associations. Much of the case report evidence upon which DIP associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of AP and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base considerably. However, even with improvements in methods and reporting, it should be recognized that case reports remain the lowest level in the hierarchy of evidence , and that case report reviews, although valuable scoping tools of the published post-market evidence, should be recognized as having limited strength in the establishment of associations between drugs and AP.
S5 Text. Detailed summary table–drugs associated with drug induced pancreatitis.
S6 Text. Sensitivity analysis–positive imaging findings required for a diagnosis of DIP.
We wish to thank Raymond Daniel for his indispensable support in reference acquisition and database management throughout the conduct of this review.
- 1. Peery AF, Dellon ES, Lund J, Crockett SD, McGowan CE, Bulsiewicz WJ, et al. Burden of Gastrointestinal Disease in the United States: 2012 Update. Gastroenterology. 2012;143: 1179–1187.e3. pmid:22885331
- 2. Jones MR, Hall OM, Kaye AM, Kaye AD. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: a review. Ochsner J. 2015;15: 45–51. pmid:25829880
- 3. Mallory A, Kern F. Drug-induced pancreatitis: a critical review. Gastroenterology. 1980;78: 813–820. pmid:6986321
- 4. Underwood TW, Frye CB. Drug-induced pancreatitis. Clin Pharm. 1993;12: 440–448. pmid:8403815
- 5. McArthur KE. Review article: drug-induced pancreatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10: 23–38. pmid:8871441
- 6. Trivedi CD, Pitchumoni CS. Drug-induced pancreatitis: an update. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39: 709–716. pmid:16082282
- 7. Badalov N, Baradarian R, Iswara K, Li J, Steinberg W, Tenner S. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Evidence-Based Review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5: 648–661.e3. pmid:17395548
- 8. Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, Gooszen HG, Johnson CD, Sarr MG, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis—2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62: 102–111. pmid:23100216
- 9. Medical Council of Canada. Clinical Laboratory Tests—Normal Values. [cited 22 Feb 2018]. Available: http://mcc.ca/objectives/normal-values/
- 10. McGowan J, Sampson M, Salzwedel DM, Cogo E, Foerster V, Lefebvre C. PRESS Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies: 2015 guideline statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016;75: 40–6. pmid:27005575
- 11. Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, Sandor P, Ruiz I, Roberts EA, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30: 239–245. pmid:7249508
- 12. Murad MH, Sultan S, Haffar S, Bazerbachi F. Methodological quality and synthesis of case series and case reports. BMJ Evid-Based Med. 2018;23: 60–63. pmid:29420178
- 13. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman D, group P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2008;6.
- 14. Chams S, El Sayegh S, Hamdon M, Kumar S, Tegeltija V. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pancreatitis: case report. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018;18: 122. pmid:30071846
- 15. Csomor J, Murínová I, Broulíková K, Kučerka O, Sedloň P, Jarošek J, et al. Propofol-induced acute pancreatitis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017;42: 495–498. pmid:28393377
- 16. Adachi E, Okazaki K, Matsushima Y, Seno H, Uchida K, Nakase H, et al. Acute pancreatitis secondary to 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Int J Pancreatol Off J Int Assoc Pancreatol. 1999;25: 217–221.
- 17. Al-Zayani J. Acute pancreatitis associated with the use of 5-aminosaliclic acid and sulfasalazine in a patient with ulcerative colitis. J Bahrain Med Soc. 1997;9: 55–59.
- 18. Arai Y, Arihiro S, Ide D, Odagi I, Itagaki M, Komoike N, et al. Acute Pancreatitis due to pH-Dependent Mesalazine That Occurred in the Course of Ulcerative Colitis. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2011;5: 610–616. pmid:22110423
- 19. Asma OK, Dalila G, Asma K, Norsaf B, He LE, Dorra T, et al. Acute pancreatitis secondary to Long-Term 5-Aminosalicylic acid therapy in a patient with ulcerative colitis: A case-report. Tunis Med. 2014;92: 423.
- 20. Besseau M, Delchier JC, Blazquez M, Soule JC. Acute pancreatitis induced by mesalazine (Pentasa) . Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 174–175.
- 21. Daniel F, Seksik P, Cacheux W, Jian R, Marteau P. Tolerance of 4-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 5-aminosalicylic-induced acute pancreatitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004;10: 258–260. pmid:15290921
- 22. Debongnie JC, Dekoninck X. Sulfasalazine, 5-ASA and acute pancreatitis in Crohn’s disease . J Clin Gastroenterol. 1994;19: 348–349. pmid:7876525
- 23. Decocq G, Gras-Champel V, Vrolant-Mille C, Delcenserie R, Sauve L, Masson H, et al. [Acute pancreatitis induced by drugs derived from 5-aminosalicylic acid: case report and review of the literature]. Therapie. 1999;54: 41–48. pmid:10216421
- 24. Deprez P, Descamps C, Fiasse R. Pancreatitis induced by 5-aminosalicylic acid. Lancet Lond Engl. 1989;2: 445–446.
- 25. Eland IA, van Puijenbroek EP, Sturkenboom MJ, Wilson JH, Stricker BH. Drug-associated acute pancreatitis: twenty-one years of spontaneous reporting in The Netherlands. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94: 2417–2422. pmid:10484002
- 26. Erdkamp F, Houben M, Ackerman E, Breed W, van Spreeuwel J. Pancreatitis induced by mesalamine. Neth J Med. 1992;41: 71–73. pmid:1407243
- 27. Fernandez J, Sala M, Panes J, Feu F, Navarro S, Teres J. Acute pancreatitis after long-term 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92: 2302–2303. pmid:9399776
- 28. Fiorentini MT, Fracchia M, Galatola G, Barlotta A, de la Pierre M. Acute pancreatitis during oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy. Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35: 1180–1182. pmid:2390934
- 29. Hochain P, Guedon C, Colin R. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of Crohn’s disease treated by oral mesalazine . Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 173–174.
- 30. Inoue H, Shiraki K, Okano H, Deguchi M, Yamanaka T, Sakai T, et al. Acute pancreatitis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50: 1064–1067. pmid:15986855
- 31. Mari B, Brullet E, Campo R, Bustamante E, Bombardo J. Acute pancreatitis by 5-aminosalicillic acid . Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;22: 28–29.
- 32. Paul AC, Oommen SP, Angami S, Moses PD. Acute pancreatitis in a child with idiopathic ulcerative colitis on long-term 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy. Indian J Gastroenterol Off J Indian Soc Gastroenterol. 2000;19: 195–196.
- 33. Radke M, Bartolomaeus G, Muller M, Richter I. Acute pancreatitis in Crohn’s disease due to 5-ASA therapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993;16: 337–339. pmid:8492268
- 34. Romero Castro R, Jimenez Saenz M, Pellicer Bautista FJ, Dominguez Palomo S, Herrerias Gutierrez JM. [Acute pancreatitis due to 5-aminosalicylic acid]. Rev Espanola Enfermedades Dig Organo Of Soc Espanola Patol Dig. 1991;79: 219–221.
- 35. Sachedina B, Saibil F, Cohen LB, Whittey J. Acute pancreatitis due to 5-aminosalicylate. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110: 490–492. pmid:2465715
- 36. Toubanakis C, Batziou E, Sipsas N, Galanopoulos G, Tzivras M, Archimandritis A. Acute pancreatitis after long-term therapy with mesalazine, and hyperamylasaemia associated with azathioprine in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15: 933–934. pmid:12867808
- 37. Tran K, Froguel E, Jian R, Lemann M, Modigliani R. Acute pancreatitis induced by mesalazine. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991;13: 715–716. pmid:1761847
- 38. Meczker Á, Mikó A, Hegyi P. 5-ASA induces mild acute pancreatitis. Case report and review of the literature. J Gastrointest Liver Dis JGLD. 2018;27: 189–194. pmid:29922764
- 39. Bosch X, Bernadich O. Acute pancreatitis during treatment with amiodarone. Lancet Lond Engl. 1997;350: 1300.
- 40. Chen YY, Chen CY, Leung KK. Acute pancreatitis and amiodarone: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13: 975–977. pmid:17352036
- 41. Famularo G, Minisola G, Nicotra GC, De Simone C. Acute pancreatitis caused by amiodarone. Eur J Emerg Med Off J Eur Soc Emerg Med. 2004;11: 305–306.
- 42. Weber A, Carbonnel F, Simon N, Kantelip B, Coaquette A, Mantion G, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis related to the use of adefovir in a liver transplant recipient. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2008;32: 247–249. pmid:18400440
- 43. Famularo G, Polchi S, De Simone C. Acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis in a patient with biliary sludge associated with the use of ceftriaxone: a rare but potentially severe complication. Ann Ital Med Interna Organo Uff Della Soc Ital Med Interna. 1999;14: 202–204.
- 44. Maranan MC, Gerber SI, Miller GG. Gallstone pancreatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17: 662–663. pmid:9686742
- 45. Zimmermann AE, Katona BG, Jodhka JS, Williams RB. Ceftriaxone-induced acute pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 1993;27: 36–37. pmid:8431616
- 46. Zinberg J, Chernaik R, Coman E, Rosenblatt R, Brandt LJ. Reversible symptomatic biliary obstruction associated with ceftriaxone pseudolithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86: 1251–1254. pmid:1882806
- 47. Nakagawa N, Ochi N, Yamane H, Honda Y, Nagasaki Y, Urata N, et al. Ceftriaxone-associated pancreatitis captured on serial computed tomography scans. Radiol Case Rep. 2018;13: 43–46. pmid:29487636
- 48. Hoyte FCL, Weber RW, Katial RK. Pancreatitis as a novel complication of aspirin therapy in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129: 1684–1686. pmid:22236727
- 49. Shirota T, Ikegami T, Sugiyama S, Kubota K, Shimizu A, Ohno Y, et al. Successful living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure after acetylsalicylic acid overdose. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2015;8: 97–102. pmid:25711165
- 50. Muzaffar M, Jia J, Liles D, Naveed M, Kumari A. Acute Pancreatitis Associated With Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Am J Ther. 2016;23: e572–e574. pmid:25756468
- 51. Bank L, Wright JP. 6-Mercaptopurine-related pancreatitis in 2 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1984;29: 357–359. pmid:6538474
- 52. Cappell MS, Das KM. Rapid development of pancreatitis following reuse of 6-mercaptopurine. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989;11: 679–681. pmid:2584670
- 53. Nogueira Soriano JM, Pelaez DG, Abad MA, Esteban CJ. Acute pancreatitis produced by 6-mercaptopurine in a patient with Crohn disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991;14: 44–45.
- 54. Targarona EM, Munoz E, Puig J, Marco C. [Acute pancreatitis secondary to the administration of 6-mercaptopurine]. Med Clin (Barc). 1990;95: 116–117.
- 55. Eddoukani I, Oubaha S, Samlani Z, Krati K. Pancréatite aiguë secondaire à la 6-mercaptopurine: à propos d’un cas. J Afr Hépato-Gastroentérologie. 2016;10: 220–222.
- 56. Hanline MHJ. Acute pancreatitis caused by ampicillin. South Med J. 1987;80: 1069. pmid:3303361
- 57. Galindo C, Buenestado J, Rene Espinet JM, Pinol MC. Acute pancreatitis and liver injury associated with amoxicillin-clavulanic therapy. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1995;87: 597–600. pmid:7577112
- 58. De Gennes JL, Dairou F, Surbled-Delas B. [Demonstration of the role of cholelithiasis in the onset of acute pancreatitis occurring during clofibrate (or its analog) treatment of atherogenic hyperlipemia]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1978;129: 435–439. pmid:686580
- 59. Ben-Ami H, Pollack S, Nagachandran P, Lashevsky I, Yarnitsky D, Edoute Y. Reversible pancreatitis, hepatitis, and peripheral polyneuropathy associated with parenteral gold therapy. J Rheumatol. 1999;26: 2049–2050. pmid:10493691
- 60. Diaz J, Davalos M, Roman R, Bustios C, Zumaeta E. [Hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis associated with gold salts: case report]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru Organo Of Soc Gastroenterol Peru. 2004;24: 353–356.
- 61. Eisemann AD, Becker NJ, Miner PBJ, Fleming J. Pancreatitis and gold treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111: 860–861.
- 62. Jain N, Savani M, Agarwal M, Sands CW. Albiglutide-induced pancreatitis. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2016;7: 236–238. pmid:27904741
- 63. Anderson JR, Johnston GW, Kennedy TL. Drug-associated recurrent pancreatitis. Dig Surg. 1985;2: 24–26.
- 64. Caldarola V, Hassett JM, Hall AH, Bronstein AB, Kulig KW, Rumack BH. Hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with acetaminophen overdose. Am J Gastroenterol. 1986;81: 579–582. pmid:3717123
- 65. Cavanaugh Z, Naut ER. Acetaminophen-induced pancreatic pseudocyst: first case report. Conn Med. 2014;78: 37–39. pmid:24600780
- 66. Coward RA. Paracetamol-induced acute pancreatitis. Br Med J. 1977;1: 1086.
- 67. Fernandes R. Acute pancreatitis following paracetamol overdose. BMJ Case Rep. 2009;2009. Available: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=prem&NEWS=N&AN=22096469
- 68. Gilmore IT, Tourvas E. Paracetamol-induced acute pancreatitis. Br Med J. 1977;1: 753–754. pmid:851712
- 69. Igarashi H, Ito T, Yoshinaga M, Oono T, Sakai H, Takayanagi R. Acetaminophen-induced acute pancreatitis. A case report. JOP J Pancreas. 2009;10: 550–553.
- 70. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, Nawaz H, Steckler G. Acetaminophen induced pancreatitis. J Toxicol Toxicol. 1991;29: 223–230.
- 71. Lee WC, Wu MJ, Cheng CH, Chen CH, Wen MC, Chen HC, et al. Acute pancreatitis following antilymphocyte globulin therapy in a renal transplant recipient. Clin Nephrol. 2006;65: 144–146. pmid:16509467
- 72. Mahdi AS, Molai M, Chandwani J, Khalili HA, Ibrahim H, Pandak N, et al. Late onset acute pancreatitis in P. falciparum malaria—An adverse reaction to intravenous artesunate? IDCases. 2018;12: 124–126. pmid:29942768
- 73. Ayoub WA, Kumar AA, Naguib HS, Taylor HC. Exenatide-induced acute pancreatitis. Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol. 2010;16: 80–83.
- 74. Denker PS, Dimarco PE. Exenatide (Exendin-4)-induced pancreatitis: A case report . Diabetes Care. 2006;29: 471.
- 75. Tripathy NR, Basha S, Jain R, Shetty S, Ramachandran A. Exenatide and acute pancreatitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56: 987–988. pmid:19322980
- 76. Ikeuchi K, Okuma Y, Tabata T. Immune-related pancreatitis secondary to nivolumab in a patient with recurrent lung adenocarcinoma: A case report. Lung Cancer. 2016;99: 148–150. pmid:27565931
- 77. Jiang R, Xu L, Huang Y, Fang C, Guo H, Li S, et al. Anti-PD-1 Drug (Nivolumab) May Induce Acute and Life-Threatening Pancreatitis in Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report. Pancreas. 2018;47: e53–e54. pmid:30113432
- 78. Abou Chacra L, Ghosn M, Ghayad E, Honein K. A case of pancreatitis associated with all-trans-retinoic acid therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematol J Off J Eur Haematol Assoc. 2001;2: 406–407.
- 79. Teng HW, Bai LY, Chao TC, Wang WS, Chen PM. Acute pancreatitis during all-trans-retinoic acid treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia in a patient without overt hypertriglyceridemia. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2005;35: 94–96. pmid:15709095
- 80. Yutsudo Y, Imoto S, Ozuru R, Kajimoto K, Itoi H, Koizumi T, et al. Acute pancreatitis after all-trans retinoic acid therapy . Ann Hematol. 1997;74: 295–296. pmid:9236517
- 81. Benavente Fernandez A, Barakat Shrem O, Ibanez Godoy I, Fernandez Perez MJ, Bolivar Raya MA. [Carbamacepine—induced pancreatitis]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 2004;21: 199–200.
- 82. Forte A, Gallinaro L, Montesano G, Turano R, Bertagni A, Illuminati G. A possible case of carbamazepine induced pancreatitis. Riv Eur Sci Mediche E Farmacol Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Rev Eur Pour Sci Medicales Pharmacol. 1996;18: 187–189.
- 83. Javaloyas M, Casasin T. Acute pancreatitis by carbamazepine in an AIDS patient . Med Clin (Barc). 1998;110: 437.
- 84. Laczek JT, Shrestha M, Kortan ND, Lake JM. Carbamazepine-induced pancreatitis with positive rechallenge. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44: 153–154. pmid:19636258
- 85. Storer A. A 54-year-old woman with a rare case of drug-induced pancreatitis. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2011;33: 23–28. pmid:21317695
- 86. Belaiche G, Ley G, Slama JL. [Acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatine therapy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2000;24: 471–472. pmid:10844297
- 87. Deshpande PR, Khera K, Thunga G, Hande M, Gouda STG, Nagappa AN. Atorvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011;2: 40–42. pmid:21701646
- 88. Prajapati S, Shah S, Desai C, Desai M, Dikshit RK. Atorvastatin-induced pancreatitis. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42: 324–325. pmid:21206629
- 89. Flynn WJ, Freeman PG, Wickboldt LG. Pancreatitis associated with isotretinoin-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107: 63. pmid:3035979
- 90. Jamshidi M, Obermeyer RJ, Govindaraj S, Garcia A, Ghani A. Acute pancreatitis secondary to isotretinoin-induced hyperlipidemia. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2002;95: 79–80. pmid:11845676
- 91. McCarter TL, Chen YK. Marked hyperlipidemia and pancreatitis associated with isotretinoin therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87: 1855–1858. pmid:1449157
- 92. Alberti-Flor JJ. Pancreatitis associated with ondansetron . J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87: 689–690. pmid:7752274
- 93. Granados LM, Ballester F, Suarez F, Sanchez-Pena J, Navas E. [Acute postoperative pancreatitis, is it associated with the use of ondansetron?]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1997;44: 87.
- 94. Sebastian Domingo JJ, Simon Marco MA, Uribarrena Echebarria R. Hepatic and pancreatic injury associated with amineptine therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1994;18: 168–169. pmid:8189020
- 95. Aissaoui M, Mounedji N, Mathelier-Fusade P, Leynadier F. [Pancreatitis caused by azathioprine: immuno-allergy?]. Presse Medicale Paris Fr 1983. 1996;25: 1650.
- 96. Alexander S, Dowling D. Azathioprine pancreatitis in inflammatory bowel disease and successful subsequent treatment with mercaptopurine. Intern Med J. 2005;35: 570–571. pmid:16105163
- 97. Echarri A, Borda F, Jimenez FJ, Arin A, Martin-Granizo I, Aznarez R. [Acute pancreatitis caused by azathioprine in patient with Crohn disease]. Rev Espanola Enfermedades Dig Organo Of Soc Espanola Patol Dig. 1996;88: 645–646.
- 98. Fernandez Lison LC, Perez Puente P, Martin Cillero MT, Garrido Ameigeiras MR. [Acute secondary pancreatitis to azathioprine versus autoimmune pancreatitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis]. Farm Hosp Organo Of Expresion Cient Soc Espanola Farm Hosp. 2010;34: 310–312.
- 99. Gallego-Gutierrez S, Navas-Lopez VM, Kolorz M, Bartosova L, Lukac K, Luque-Perez S, et al. Successful Mercaptopurine Usage despite Azathioprine-Induced Pancreatitis in Paediatric Crohn’s Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2015;9: 676–679. pmid:25968582
- 100. Guillaume P, Grandjean E, Male PJ. Azathioprine-associated acute pancreatitis in the course of chronic active hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1984;29: 78–79. pmid:6692736
- 101. Herskowitz LJ, Olansky S, Lang PG. Acute pancreatitis associated with long-term azathioprine therapy. Occurrence in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol. 1979;115: 179. pmid:426524
- 102. Isenberg JN. Pancreatitis, amylase clearance, and azathioprine. J Pediatr. 1978;93: 1043–1044. pmid:722424
- 103. Lai SW, Wang YC, Wang CH, Huang TY. Acute pancreatitis and erythema nodosum associated with azathioprine. QJM Mon J Assoc Physicians. 2012;105: 363–364.
- 104. Ledder OD, Lemberg DA, Ooi CY, Day AS. Are thiopurines always contraindicated after thiopurine-induced pancreatitis in inflammatory bowel disease? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57: 583–586. pmid:23783022
- 105. Paloyan D, Levin B, Simonowitz D. Azathioprine-associated acute pancreatitis. Am J Dig Dis. 1977;22: 839–840. pmid:900102
- 106. Roblin X, Becot F, Jacquot JM, Nairi A, Abinader J, Monnet D. [Azathioprine-induced acute pancreatitis]. Ann Gastroenterol Hepatol (Paris). 1990;26: 233. pmid:2256671
- 107. Siwach V, Bansal V, Kumar A, Rao Ch U, Sharma A, Minz M. Post-renal transplant azathioprine-induced pancreatitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc—Eur Ren Assoc. 1999;14: 2495–2498.
- 108. Tragnone A, Bazzocchi G, Aversa G, Pecorelli MG, Elmi G, Venerato S, et al. Acute pancreatitis after azathioprine treatment for ulcerative colitis. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1996;28: 102–104. pmid:8782004
- 109. Velicia MR, Gonzalez JM, Fernandez P, Remacha B, Martin MA, Sanchez G, et al. [Acute azathioprine-induced pancreatitis in a female patient with Crohn’s disease]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;22: 186–187. pmid:10349790
- 110. Venkatesh PGK, Navaneethan U. Azathioprine induced pancreatitis in a patient with co-existing autoimmune pancreatitis and hepatitis. J Pancreas. 2011;12: 250–254.
- 111. Basturk A, Yilmaz A, Keceli M, Artan R. Infliximab treatment in a paediatric patient with ulcerative colitis, who developed acute pancreatitis due to azathioprine during follow-up. Gastroenterol Rev. 2017;3: 235–237. pmid:29123588
- 112. Lopez Centeno B, Perez Encinas M, Sanz Marquez S. ACUTE SECONDARY PANCREATITIS TO AZATHIOPRINE IN A PATIENT WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. 2013;15: 3.
- 113. Mann S, Thillainayagam A. Is ciprofloxacin a new cause of acute pancreatitis? . J Clin Gastroenterol. 2000;31: 336. pmid:11129278
- 114. Kitamura Y, Yoshii H, Nishimoto K, Shinchi Y, Tokonabe S, Takao M, et al. A Case of Pancreatic Side Effects Resulting from Sorafenib and Axitinib Treatment of Stage IV Renal Cell Carcinoma. Keio J Med. 2015;64: 62–64. pmid:26727578
- 115. Peron J, Khenifer S, Potier V, Vitry T, Pasquet F, Rassat R, et al. Axitinib-induced acute pancreatitis: a case report. Anticancer Drugs. 2014;25: 478–479. pmid:24398664
- 116. Almeida DM, Jean MR, Chystsiakova A, Monahan E, Oliveira SB, Monteiro IM. Levetiracetam-associated acute pancreatitis in an adolescent with autism: a case report. Pancreas. 2013;42: 177–178. pmid:23254916
- 117. Azar NJ, Aune P. Acute pancreatitis and elevated liver transaminases after rapid titration of oral levetiracetam. J Clin Neurosci Off J Neurosurg Soc Australas. 2014;21: 1053–1054.
- 118. Im MS, Ahn HS, Cho HJ, Kim KB, Lee HY. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with acute pancreatitis in a heart transplant recipient treated with tacrolimus. Exp Clin Transplant Off J Middle East Soc Organ Transplant. 2013;11: 72–74.
- 119. Nieto Y, Russ P, Everson G, Bearman SI, Cagnoni PJ, Jones RB, et al. Acute pancreatitis during immunosuppression with tacrolimus following an allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;26: 109–111. pmid:10918414
- 120. Muchnick JS, Mehta JL. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced pancreatitis. Clin Cardiol. 1999;22: 50–51. pmid:9929757
- 121. Poldermans D, van Blankenstein M. Pancreatitis induced by disodium azodisalicylate. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988;83: 578–580. pmid:2452567
- 122. Garau P, Orenstein SR, Neigut DA, Kocoshis SA. Pancreatitis associated with olsalazine and sulfasalazine in children with ulcerative colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1994;18: 481–485. pmid:7520936
- 123. Arbel Y, Weinstein D, Yogev R, Halevy A. Acute pancreatitis following clomiphene citrate treatment: Case report and review of the literature. Int J Surg. 2008;6: 483–484. pmid:19059153
- 124. Castro MR, Nguyen TT, O’Brien T. Clomiphene-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74: 1125–1128. pmid:10560601
- 125. Bilar JM, Carvalho-Filho RJ, Mota CFMGP, Fucuta P da S, Ferraz MLCG. Acute pancreatitis associated with boceprevir: a case report. Braz J Infect Dis Off Publ Braz Soc Infect Dis. 2014;18: 454–456.
- 126. Sue M, Yoshihara A, Kuboki K, Hiroi N, Yoshino G. A case of severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis after administration of sitagliptin. Clin Med InsightsCase Rep. 2013;6: 23–27.
- 127. Kocak MZ, Aktas G, Erkus E, Duman TT, Atak BM, Sahin D, et al. A Case of Sitagliptin-Induced Mild Acute Pancreatitis. J Coll Physicians Surg—Pak JCPSP. 2018;28: 334. pmid:29615184
- 128. Yen JM, Tan LF, Sze YL. Sitagliptin related pancreatitis in the elderly: A rare but serious complication. Eur Geriatr Med. 2017;8: 377–378.
- 129. Urru SAM, Mariotti E, Carta P, Massidda S, Marcias M, Murru R, et al. Acute pancreatitis following brentuximab vedotin therapy for refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report. Drugs R D. 2014;14: 9–11. pmid:24493291
- 130. Gang N, Langevitz P, Livneh A. Relapsing acute pancreatitis induced by re-exposure to the cholesterol lowering agent bezafibrate. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94: 3626–3628. pmid:10606331
- 131. Francobandiera G, Rondalli G, Telattin P. Acute pancreatitis associated with clothiapine use. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1999;14: 211–212.
- 132. Talamo G, Sivik J, Pandey MK, Mir MA. Bortezomib-induced acute pancreatitis: Case report and review of the literature. J Oncol Pharm Pract Off Publ Int Soc Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016;22: 332–334.
- 133. Wang HH, Tsui J, Wang XY, Liu SS, Li J. Bortezomib-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014;55: 1404–1405. pmid:23927397
- 134. Nykamp D, Kraus EJ. Antacid-induced acute pancreatitis. Consult Pharm J Am Soc Consult Pharm. 2013;28: 247–251.
- 135. Iliopoulou A, Giannakopoulos G, Pagoy H, Christos T, Theodore S. Acute pancreatitis due to captopril treatment. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46: 1882–1883. pmid:11575439
- 136. Jeandidier N, Klewansky M, Pinget M. Captopril-induced acute pancreatitis. Diabetes Care. 1995;18: 410–411. pmid:7555489
- 137. Bayard JMF, Descamps OS, Evrard S, Dumonceau JM, Servais L, Zingir Z, et al. Case report: acute pancreatitis induced by Clozapine. Acta Gastro-Enterol Belg. 2005;68: 92–94.
- 138. Cerulli TR. Clozapine-associated pancreatitis. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1999;7: 61–63. pmid:10439307
- 139. Chengappa KNR, Pelucio M, Baker RW, Cole D. Recurrent pancreatitis on clozapine re-challenge. J Psychopharmacol (Oxf). 1995;9: 381–382.
- 140. Gatto EM. Clozapine and pancreatitis. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1998;21: 203. pmid:9617515
- 141. Huang YJ, Lane HY, Liao CH, Huang CC. Recurrent pancreatitis without eosinophilia on clozapine rechallenge. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33: 1561–1562. pmid:19735691
- 142. Jubert P, Fernandez R, Ruiz A. Clozapine-related pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121: 722–723. pmid:7944089
- 143. Martin A. Acute pancreatitis associated with clozapine use . Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149: 714.
- 144. Raja M, Azzoni A. A case of clozapine-associated pancreatitis. Open Neuropsychopharmacol J. 2011;4: 5–7.
- 145. Wehmeier PM, Heiser P, Remschmidt H. Pancreatitis followed by pericardial effusion in an adolescent treated with clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23: 102–103. pmid:12544384
- 146. Srivali N, Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, Ungprasert P. Acute pancreatitis in the use of canagliflozin: A rare side-effect of the novel therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2015;6: 101–102. pmid:26229348
- 147. Patel KM, Pikas E, George T. Drug-Induced Necrotizing Pancreatitis With a Focus on Canagliflozin. Am J Ther. 2017;24: e496. pmid:28639964
- 148. Chan HY, Ng CM, Tiu SC, Chan AOK, Shek CC. Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis: A contributory role of capecitabine? Hong Kong Med J. 2012;18: 526–529. pmid:23223655
- 149. Chng CL, Kek PC, Khoo DHC. Carbimazole-induced acute pancreatitis and cholestatic hepatitis. Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol. 2011;17: 960–961.
- 150. Marazuela M, Sanchez de Paco G, Jimenez I, Carraro R, Fernandez-Herrera J, Pajares JM, et al. Acute pancreatitis, hepatic cholestasis, and erythema nodosum induced by carbimazole treatment for Graves’ disease. Endocr J. 2002;49: 315–318. pmid:12201214
- 151. Altman AJ, Dinndorf P, Quinn JJ. Acute pancreatitis in association with cytosine arabinoside therapy. Cancer. 1982;49: 1384–1386. pmid:6949626
- 152. McBride CE, Yavorski RT, Moses FM, Robson ME, Solimando Jr, Byrd JC. Acute pancreatitis associated with continuous infusion cytarabine therapy. Cancer. 1996;77: 2588–2591. pmid:8640710
- 153. Siemers RF, Friedenberg WR, Norfleet RG. High-dose cytosine arabinoside-associated pancreatitis. Cancer. 1985;56: 1940–1942. pmid:2411382
- 154. Gill CJ, Jennings AE, Newton JB, Schwartz DE. Fatal acute pancreatitis in a patient chronically treated with candesartan. J Pharm Technol. 2005;21: 79–82.
- 155. Prigigine T, Futeral B, Kraytman M. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with chlorthalidone therapy. Acta Clin Belg. 1978;33: 272.
- 156. Arnold F, Doyle PJ, Bell G. Acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with cimetidine. Lancet Lond Engl. 1978;1: 382–383.
- 157. Hainaut P, Schapira M, Mugabo P, Cerulus G, Coche E. Cimetidine-induced acute pancreatitis. Rev Med Interne. 1987;8: 516–518. pmid:3445034
- 158. Nott DM, de Sousa BA. Suspected cimetidine-induced acute pancreatitis. Br J Clin Pract. 1989;43: 264–265. pmid:2480803
- 159. Seo JH, Lee DY, Hong CW, Lee IH, Ahn KS, Kang GW. Severe lactic acidosis and acute pancreatitis associated with cimetidine in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking metformin. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn. 2013;52: 2245–2248.
- 160. Wilkinson ML, O’Driscoll R, Kiernan TJ. Cimetidine and pancreatitis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1981;1: 610–611.
- 161. Levine RA, McGuire RF. Corticosteroid-induced pancreatitis: a case report demonstrating recurrence with rechallenge. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988;83: 1161–1164. pmid:3421228
- 162. Baciewicz AM, King TJ, Sokos DR. Acute pancreatitis associated with celecoxib . Ann Intern Med. 2000;132: 680.
- 163. Godino J, Butani RC, Wong PWK, Murphy FT. Acute drug-induced pancreatitis associated with celecoxib . J Clin Rheumatol. 1999;5: 305–307.
- 164. Mennecier D, Ceppa F, Sinayoko L, Corberand D, Harnois F, Thiolet C, et al. [Acute pancreatitis after treatment by celecoxib]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007;31: 668–669. pmid:17925765
- 165. Nind G, Selby W. Acute pancreatitis: A rare complication of celecoxib . Intern Med J. 2002;32: 624–625. pmid:12512760
- 166. Hastier P, Buckley MJ, Peten EP, Demuth N, Dumas R, Demarquay JF, et al. A new source of drug-induced acute pancreatitis: codeine. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95: 3295–3298. pmid:11095359
- 167. Moreno Escobosa MC, Amat Lopez J, Cruz Granados S, Moya Quesada MC. Pancreatitis due to codeine. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2005;33: 175–177.
- 168. Allaouchiche B, Duflo F, Cotte L, Mathon L, Chassard D. Acute pancreatitis with severe lactic acidosis in an HIV-infected patient on didanosine therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;44: 137–138. pmid:10459826
- 169. Bouvet E, Casalino E, Prevost MH, Vachon F. Fatal case of 2’,3’-dideoxyinosine-associated pancreatitis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1990;336: 1515.
- 170. Cina SJ, Conradi SE. Acute pancreatitis in a prisoner with AIDS. Bugs or drugs? Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1994;15: 28–31. pmid:8166111
- 171. Levin TL, Berdon WE, Tang HB, Haller JO. Dideoxyinosine-induced pancreatitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27: 189–191. pmid:9028860
- 172. Maxson CJ, Greenfield SM, Turner JL. Acute pancreatitis as a common complication of 2’,3’-dideoxyinosine therapy in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87: 708–713. pmid:1590305
- 173. Avraam C, Siomos K, Armenaka MC, Sion ML. Clarithromycin associated acute pancreatitis. Ann Gastroenterol. 2007;20: 35–37.
- 174. Gonzalez Carro P, Perez Roldan F, Legaz Huidobro ML, Moraleda de Acuna M, Nieto Garcia JC. Acute pancreatitis and modified-release clarithromycin. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38: 508–509.
- 175. Koufakis T, Gabranis I, Ntais K, Karangelis D, Batalla S, Paschala N, et al. Acute pancreatitis due to clarithromycin therapy: A rare adverse effect of a common drug. Eur J Intern Med. 2013;24: e77.
- 176. Liviu L, Yair L, Yehuda S. Pancreatitis induced by clarithromycin. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125: 701.
- 177. Schouwenberg BJJW, Deinum J. Acute pancreatitis after a course of clarithromycin. Neth J Med. 2003;61: 266–267. pmid:14567525
- 178. Bunin N, Meyer WH, Christensen M, Pratt CB. Pancreatitis following cisplatin: a case report. Cancer Treat Rep. 1985;69: 236–237. pmid:3855700
- 179. Das AK, Jawed Q. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: a rare manifestation of an incomplete “dapsone syndrome.” Indian J Pharmacol. 2014;46: 455–457. pmid:25097293
- 180. Jha SH, Reddy JA, Dave JK. Dapsone-induced acute pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37: 1438–1440. pmid:14519046
- 181. Navarro-Mingorance A, Castellanos-Alcarria AJ, Ibanez-Mico S, Cervantes-Pardo A, Sanchez-Pedreno P. Dapsone-induced isolated acute pancreatitis in a child with linear IgA dermatitis. Indian J Pediatr. 2014;81: 735–736. pmid:24037496
- 182. McCormick PA, O’Donoghue D, Brennan N. Diphenoxylate and pancreatitis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1985;1: 752.
- 183. Balasch J, Martinez-Roman S, Carreras J, Vanrell JA. Acute pancreatitis associated with danazol treatment for endometriosis. Hum Reprod Oxf Engl. 1994;9: 1163–1165.
- 184. Roberge RJ, Martin TG, Hodgman M, Benitez JG. Acute chemical pancreatitis associated with a tricyclic antidepressant (clomipramine) overdose. J Toxicol Toxicol. 1994;32: 425–429.
- 185. Anton Aranda E, Altuna Basurto E. [Acute pancreatitis and erythromycin]. Med Clin (Barc). 1991;96: 638.
- 186. Berger TM, Cook WJ, O’Marcaigh AS, Zimmerman D. Acute pancreatitis in a 12-year-old girl after an erythromycin overdose. Pediatrics. 1992;90: 624–626. pmid:1408521
- 187. Gonzalez Carro P, Ribes F, Garcia MJ. Acute pancreatitis associated with erythromycin . Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1995;87: 757–758. pmid:8519548
- 188. Fang CC, Wang HP, Lin JT. Erythromycin-induced acute pancreatitis. J Toxicol Toxicol. 1996;34: 93–95.
- 189. Guerrero Igea FJ, Lepe Jimenez JA, Garrido Serrano A, Palomo Gil S. [Acute pancreatitis caused by erythromycin]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 2001;18: 400.
- 190. Gumaste VV. Erythromycin-induced pancreatitis. Am J Med. 1989;86: 725. pmid:2729328
- 191. Hawksworth CR. Acute pancreatitis associated with infusion of erythromycin lactobionate. BMJ. 1989;298: 190.
- 192. Pascual Velasco F, Goicoechea Ibarra L, Bichara Antanios G. [Acute pancreatitis induced by erythromycin: a new case]. Med Clin (Barc). 1991;97: 473–474.
- 193. Surinach JM, Alegre J, Fernandez de Sevilla T, Queralt M. [Acute pancreatitis from erythromycin]. Rev Clin Esp. 1993;192: 458.
- 194. Teillet L, Chaussade S, Mory B, Roche H, Couturier D, Guerre J. [Drug-induced acute pancreatitis following intravenous erythomycin antibiotherapy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 265–266. pmid:2044892
- 195. Tenenbein MS, Tenenbein M. Acute pancreatitis due to erythromycin overdose. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21: 675–676. pmid:16215473
- 196. Wong PW, Dillard TA, Kroenke K. Multiple organ toxicity from addition of erythromycin to long-term lovastatin therapy. South Med J. 1998;91: 202–205. pmid:9496876
- 197. Chhaparia A, Hammami MB, Vareedayah A, Schroeder K. Eluxadoline-Associated Pancreatitis in a Post-Cholecystectomy Patient: A Case Report. Del Med J. 2017;89: 90–92. pmid:29894043
- 198. Khetpal N, Yadav L, Khalid S, Kumar R. Eluxadoline-induced Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Young Female without a Gallbladder: A Case Report and Literature Review. Cureus. 2018;10: e3747. pmid:30820368
- 199. Bories JM, Bauret P, Larrey D, Michel H. [Acute pancreatitis and dexfenfluramine (Isomeride): apropos of a case]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1992;16: 817–818. pmid:1478418
- 200. Amery A, Vandenbroucke J, Desbuquoit JL, De GJ. Pancreatitis during clonidine treatment. TGASTRO-ENT. 1973;16: 179–185.
- 201. Tysk C, Al-Eryani AY, Shawabkeh AA. Acute pancreatitis induced by fluvastatin therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;35: 406–408. pmid:12394230
- 202. Carnovale A, Esposito P, Bassano P, Russo L, Uomo G. Enalapril-induced acute recurrent pancreatitis. Dig Liver Dis. 2003;35: 55–57. pmid:12725609
- 203. Madsen JS, Jacobsen IA. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and acute pancreatitis. Blood Press. 1995;4: 369–371. pmid:8746605
- 204. Maringhini A, Termini A, Patti R, Ciambra M, Biffarella P, Pagliaro L. Enalapril-associated acute pancreatitis: recurrence after rechallenge. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92: 166–167. pmid:8995963
- 205. Martin T, Taupignon A, Graf E, Perrin D. [Pancreatitis and hepatitis in a patient treated with enalapril maleate. A case report]. Therapie. 1989;44: 449–450. pmid:2560267
- 206. Moreno Sanchez-Canete A, Bernardino de la Serna JI, Garcia Puig J, Gil Aguado A. [Acute pancreatitis associated with ACE inhibitors]. Aten Primaria. 1998;22: 260–261. pmid:9803579
- 207. Gonzalez Ramallo VJ, Muino Miguez A, Torres Segovia FJ. Necrotizing pancreatitis and enalapril. Eur J Med. 1992;1: 123. pmid:1342370
- 208. Roush MK, McNutt RA, Gray TF. The adverse effect dilemma: Quest for accessible information. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114: 298–299. pmid:1987877
- 209. Khan IH, Edward N. Pancreatitis associated with diclofenac. Postgrad Med J. 1993;69: 486–487. pmid:8208651
- 210. Kovacic S, Roginic S, Nemrava J, Gospocic K, Seferovic Saric M, Luetic K. Acute pancreatitis in two patients with Parkinson’s disease. Schumacher U, editor. Cogent Med. 2017;4.
- 211. Pedrol E, Martos JA, Plaza V, Celis R, Montserrat JM. [Acute pancreatitis caused by demeclocycline]. Rev Clin Esp. 1989;184: 392–393. pmid:2505341
- 212. Call T, Malarkey WB, Thomas FB. Acute pancreatitis secondary to furosemide with associated hyperlipidemia. Am J Dig Dis. 1977;22: 835–838. pmid:900101
- 213. Chao CT, Chao JY. Case report: furosemide and pancreatitis: Importance of dose and latency period before reaction. Can Fam Physician Med Fam Can. 2013;59: 43–45.
- 214. Juang P, Page RL, Zolty R. Probable loop diuretic-induced pancreatitis in a sulfonamide-allergic patient. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40: 128–134. pmid:16352777
- 215. Stenvinkel P, Alvestrand A. Loop diuretic-induced pancreatitis with rechallenge in a patient with malignant hypertension and renal insufficiency. Acta Med Scand. 1988;224: 89–91. pmid:2458013
- 216. Subramaniam S, Zell JA, Kunz PL. Everolimus causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw JNCCN. 2013;11: 5–9.
- 217. Acharya GK, Hita AG, Yeung S-CJ, Yeung S-CJ. Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Acute Pancreatitis: Serious Adverse Effects of Everolimus. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;69: 666–667. pmid:28442095
- 218. Coschieri M, Dor JF, Andrieux G, Alessandra JP, Dulbecco P. [Acute pancreatitis and diethylstilbestrol (Distilben)]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1994;18: 1040–1041. pmid:7705567
- 219. Lee YD, Lee ST. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44: 165–166. pmid:12046971
- 220. Cecchi E, Forte P, Cini E, Banchelli G, Ferlito C, Mugelli A. Pancreatitis induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2b in a patient affected by chronic hepatitis C. Emerg Med Australas EMA. 2004;16: 473–475. pmid:15537413
- 221. Choi JW, Lee JS, Paik WH, Song TJ, Kim JW, Bae WK, et al. Acute pancreatitis associated with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2016;22: 168–171. pmid:27044768
- 222. Goldman KE, Marshall MK, Alessandrini E, Bernstein ML. Complications of alpha-interferon therapy for aggressive central giant cell lesion of the maxilla. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100: 285–291. pmid:16122654
- 223. Ozdogan O, Tahan V, Cincin A, Imeryuz N, Tozun N. Acute pancreatitis associated with the use of peginterferon . Pancreas. 2007;34: 485–487. pmid:17446854
- 224. Roguedas AM, Lonceint J, Sassolas B, de Saint Martin L, Guillet G. [Acute pancreatitis after high-dose interferon therapy in a patient with melanoma]. Presse Medicale Paris Fr 1983. 2001;30: 1105.
- 225. Sevenet F, Sevenet C, Capron D, Descombes P. Acute pancreatitis associated with interferon alpha therapy . Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1999;23: 1256. pmid:10651535
- 226. Sotomatsu M, Shimoda M, Ogawa C, Morikawa A. Acute pancreatitis associated with interferon-alpha therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Am J Hematol. 1995;48: 211–212. pmid:7864037
- 227. Tahan V, Tahan G, Dane F, Uraz S, Yardim M. Acute pancreatitis attributed to the use of pegylated interferon in a patient with chronic hepatitis C . J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007;16: 224–225. pmid:17592576
- 228. Tannir NM, Talpaz M, Ghazal H, Proothi S, Kantarjian HM. Acute pancreatitis associated with interferon alpha therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000;39: 647–650. pmid:11342349
- 229. Vignon RK, Seddik H, Rouibaa F, En-Nouali H, Kabbaj N, Benkirane A. Acute pancreatitis during pegylated interferon therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. J Gastrointest Liver Dis JGLD. 2009;18: 512.
- 230. Eland IA, Rasch MC, Sturkenboom MJ, Bekkering FC, Brouwer JT, Delwaide J, et al. Acute pancreatitis attributed to the use of interferon alfa-2b. Gastroenterology. 2000;119: 230–233. pmid:10889173
- 231. de Beaufort C, Beck P, Seligmann R, de Meirleir L, de Schepper J. Acute pancreatitis after growth hormone treatment: disease or treatment linked? Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165: 652–653. pmid:16691411
- 232. Malozowski S, Hung W, Scott DC, Stadel BV. Acute pancreatitis associated with growth hormone therapy for short stature . N Engl J Med. 1995;332: 401–402.
- 233. Sepulveda Vildosola AC, Lopez Aguilar E, Yanez Lopez P, Ramirez Colorado R, Escobar Padilla B, Madrazo De la Garza A. [Sodium diphenylhydantoin as a probable cause of pancreatitis]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 1999;64: 186–189. pmid:10851582
- 234. Martinez-Granados F, Navarro JN, Estrada JL, Martinez-Lazcano MT, Lluis-Casajuana F, Ordovas-Baines JP. Ertapenem-induced acute pancreatitis in a surgical elderly patient. Pharm World Sci PWS. 2008;30: 278–280. pmid:18046618
- 235. Briongos-Figuero LS, Bachiller-Luque P, Pons-Renedo F, Eiros-Bouza JM. Isoniazid-induced acute pancreatitis . Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25: 217–218.
- 236. Chan KL, Chan HS, Lui SF, Lai KN. Recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by isoniazid. Tuber Lung Dis Off J Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis. 1994;75: 383–385.
- 237. Chow KM, Szeto CC, Leung CB, Li PKT. Recurrent acute pancreatitis after isoniazid. Neth J Med. 2004;62: 172–174. pmid:15366703
- 238. Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Storme T, Deray G. Acute pancreatitis induced by isoniazid. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96: 3208–3209.
- 239. Mendoza JL, Larrubia JR, Lana R, Espinos D, Diaz-Rubio M. [Acute pancreatitis induced by isoniazid, a casual association]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 1998;15: 588–590.
- 240. Rabassa AA, Trey G, Shukla U, Samo T, Anand BS. Isoniazid-induced acute pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121: 433–434. pmid:8053617
- 241. Saleem AF, Arbab S, Naz FQ. Isoniazid induced acute pancreatitis in a young girl. J Coll Physicians Surg—Pak JCPSP. 2015;25: 299–300. pmid:25899200
- 242. Sanchez AJ, Boken DJ. Isoniazid-associated pancreatitis. Infect Med. 2004;21: 622–623.
- 243. Stephenson I, Wiselka MJ, Qualie MJ. Acute pancreatitis induced by isoniazid in the treatment of tuberculosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96: 2271–2272. pmid:11467674
- 244. Yi PH, Veltre DR, Kuttab JS, Rangan V, Norton L. Acute groove pancreatitis due to isoniazid. Neth J Med. 2013;71: 104. pmid:23462062
- 245. Rion RJ. Recurrent pancreatitis after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1994;7: 74–76. pmid:7510925
- 246. Shafqet MA, Brown TV, Sharma R. Normal lipase drug-induced pancreatitis: A novel finding. Am J Emerg Med. 2015;33: 476.
- 247. Luo H, Bhatt H, Mohamad S, Uhrik E, Sen S, Mathew T, et al. Acute pancreatitis: possible association of dimethyl fumarate for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2015;262: 779–780. pmid:25626723
- 248. Olson EL, Whang YE. Hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis associated with estramustine phosphate. Am J Clin Oncol Cancer Clin Trials. 2002;25: 342–343.
- 249. Bekassy A, Wiebe T, Hochbergs P. Erwinase-induced pancreatitis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1992;340: 1552–1553.
- 250. Berrak SG, Canpolat C, Berik P, Kiyan G. Pancreatic pseudocyst following acute pancreatitis induced by L-asparaginase treatment. Int J Pediatr Hematol. 2001;7: 413–416.
- 251. Bertolone SJ, Fuenfer MM, Groff DB, Patel CC. Delayed pancreatic pseudocyst formations. Long-term complication of L-asparaginase treatment. Cancer. 1982;50: 2964–2966. pmid:7139589
- 252. Chambon JP, Dupriez B, Danjou P, Provost M, Bauters F, Wurtz A, et al. [Acute necrotic pancreatitis secondary to asparaginase. Role of drug combinations—early diagnosis and treatment. Apropos of 2 cases]. J Chir (Paris). 1993;130: 74–78.
- 253. Charan VD, Desai N, Singh AP, Choudhry VP. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis as a complication of L-asparaginase therapy. Indian Pediatr. 1993;30: 809–810. pmid:8132268
- 254. Chen CH, Lu MY, Lin KH, Lin DT, Peng SF, Jou ST. Ureteral obstruction caused by L-asparaginase induced pancreatitis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004;103: 380–384. pmid:15216406
- 255. Cheung YF, Lee CW, Chan CF, Chan KL, Lau YL, Yeung CY. Somatostatin therapy in L-asparaginase-induced pancreatitis. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1994;22: 421–424. pmid:7908715
- 256. Garrington T, Bensard D, Ingram JD, Silliman CC. Successful management with octreotide of a child with L-asparaginase induced hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1998;30: 106–109. pmid:9403019
- 257. Greenstein R, Nogeire C, Ohnuma T, Greenstein A. Management of asparaginase induced hemorrhagic pancreatitis complicated by pseudocyst. Cancer. 1979;43: 718–722. pmid:283880
- 258. Koniver GA, Scott JE. Pancreatitis with pseudocyst: a complication of L-asparaqinase therapy for leukemia. Del Med J. 1978;50: 330–332. pmid:668953
- 259. Laugel V, Escande B, Entz-Werle N, Mazingue F, Ferster A, Bertrand Y, et al. [Severe acute pancreatitis in children receiving asparaginase: multicenter retrospective study]. Arch Pediatr Organe Off Soc Francaise Pediatr. 2005;12: 34–41.
- 260. McLean R, Martin S, Lam-Po-Tang PR. Fatal case of L-asparaginase induced pancreatitis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1982;2: 1401–1402.
- 261. Murakawa M, Okamura T, Shibuya T, Harada M, Otsuka T, Niho Y. Use of a synthetic protease inhibitor for the treatment of L-asparaginase-induced acute pancreatitis complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. Ann Hematol. 1992;64: 249–252. pmid:1623061
- 262. Pecquenard L, Damay M, Naveau C, Lemarchand V, Dufay E, Berod T. [Delayed acute pancreatitis after treatment with L-asparaginase. A case report]. Therapie. 1990;45: 453–454.
- 263. Sadoff J, Hwang S, Rosenfeld D, Ettinger L, Spigland N. Surgical pancreatic complications induced by L-asparaginase. J Pediatr Surg. 1997;32: 860–863. pmid:9200086
- 264. Tan CL, Chiang SP, Wee KP. Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis following L asparaginase therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case report. Singapore Med J. 1974;15: 278–282. pmid:4533158
- 265. Top PC, Tissing WJE, Kuiper JW, Pieters R, van Eijck CHJ. L-asparaginase-induced severe necrotizing pancreatitis successfully treated with percutaneous drainage. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;44: 95–97. pmid:15368548
- 266. Wu F, Qu L, Tan Y, Zhang Y, Hu C. L-asparaginase-induced severe acute pancreatitis in an adult with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: A case report and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 2014;7: 1305–1307. pmid:24944714
- 267. Yu CH, Lin KH, Lin DT, Chen RL, Horng YC, Chang MH. L-asparaginase-related pancreatic pseudocyst: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc Taiwan Yi Zhi. 1994;93: 441–444. pmid:7920087
- 268. Leblanc A, Leclercq B, Nitenberg G, Lasser P, Couanet D, Hartmann O, et al. [Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis caused by asparaginase. A case in a child with a favorable course]. Presse Medicale Paris Fr 1983. 1983;12: 1351–1353.
- 269. Schuler D, Koós R, Révész T, Virág I, Gálfi I. L-asparaginase therapy and its complications in acute lymphoid leukaemia and generalized lymphosarcoma. Haematologia (Budap). 1976;10: 205–211.
- 270. Khanna S, Kumar A. Acute pancreatitis due to hydrocortisone in a patient with ulcerative colitis . J Gastroenterol Hepatol Aust. 2003;18: 1110–1111.
- 271. Achecar JL, Rivero FM, Cobo RJ, Ruiz Del Arbol OL. Doxycycline induced-acute pancreatitis. Med Clin (Barc). 2010;134: 705–706.
- 272. Inayat F, Virk HUH, Yoon DJ, Riaz I. Drug-Induced Pancreatitis: A Rare Manifestation of Doxycycline Administration. North Am J Med Sci. 2016;8: 117–120.
- 273. Moy BT, Kapila N. Probable doxycycline-induced acute pancreatitis. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2016;73: 286–291.
- 274. Goffin E, Horsmans Y, Pirson Y, Cornu C, Geubel A, van Ypersele De Strihou C. Acute necrotico-hemorrhagic pancreatitis after famciclovir prescription. Transplantation. 1995;59: 1218–1219. pmid:7537399
- 275. Dabaghi S. ACE inhibitors and pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1991;115: 330–331.
- 276. Kanbay M, Selcuk H, Yilmaz U, Boyacioglu S. Recurrent acute pancreatitis probably secondary to lisinopril. South Med J. 2006;99: 1388–1389. pmid:17233197
- 277. Maliekal J, Drake CF. Acute pancreatitis associated with the use of lisinopril. Ann Pharmacother. 1993;27: 1465–1466. pmid:8305779
- 278. Marinella MA, Billi JE. Lisinopril therapy associated with acute pancreatitis. West J Med. 1995;163: 77–78. pmid:7667995
- 279. Miller LG, Tan G. Drug-induced pancreatitis (lisinopril). J Am Board Fam Pract. 1999;12: 150–153. pmid:10220239
- 280. Standridge JB. Fulminant pancreatitis associated with lisinopril therapy. South Med J. 1994;87: 179–181. pmid:8115879
- 281. Garg R, Agarwala S, Bhatnagar V. Acute pancreatitis induced by ifosfamide therapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45: 2071–2073. pmid:20920734
- 282. Gerson R, Serrano A, Villalobos A, Sternbach GL, Varon J. Acute pancreatitis secondary to ifosfamide. J Emerg Med. 1997;15: 645–647. pmid:9348053
- 283. Hung MC, Hung GY, Lin PC, Tiu CM, Tien YC. Acute pancreatitis associated with ifosfamide. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007;70: 176–179. pmid:17475600
- 284. Izraeli S, Adamson PC, Blaney SM, Balis FM. Acute pancreatitis after ifosfamide therapy. Cancer. 1994;74: 1627–1628. pmid:8062195
- 285. Ahmad I, Ruby E, Usman H, Hotiana M, Hussain M, Rahman F. Ezetimibe-induced acute pancreatitis. South Med J. 2007;100: 409–410. pmid:17458405
- 286. Cheung O, Chopra K, Yu T, Nalesnik MA, Amin S, Shakil AO. Gatifloxacin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Acute Pancreatitis . Ann Intern Med. 2004;140: 73–74. pmid:14706991
- 287. Alsubaie S, Almalki MH. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5: 317–318. pmid:24194972
- 288. Ben MH, Thabet H, Zaghdoudi I, Amamou M. Metformin associated acute pancreatitis. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44: 47–48. pmid:11824780
- 289. McFadden M, Gordon A, Leong G, Ward D, Scott JG. Pancreatitis associated with metformin used for management of clozapine-related weight gain. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50: 701–702. pmid:26883571
- 290. Molina Infante J, Prieto Bermejo AB, Perez GB, Fernandez BM. Toxic metformin-associated acute pancreatitis without kidney failure. Med Clin (Barc). 2008;131: 519.
- 291. Calmus Y, Biour M, Bodin F. Indalpine-induced hepatitis and pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1985;9: 266–268. pmid:4007381
- 292. Lin YH, Perng CL, Lin HJ, Chang FY. Acute pancreatitis possibly related to finasteride. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;32: 276.
- 293. Abdul-Ghaffar NU, el-Sonbaty MR. Pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis associated with lovastatin-gemfibrozil therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1995;21: 340–341. pmid:8583121
- 294. Abraham A, Raghavan P, Patel R, Rajan D, Singh J, Mustacchia P. Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole therapy. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2012;6: 223–231. pmid:22679409
- 295. Agito K, Manni A. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole in a Patient With Subclinical Hyperthyroidism. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep. 2015;3: 2324709615592229. pmid:26425645
- 296. Jung JH, Hahm JR, Jung J, Kim SK, Kim S, Kim KY, et al. Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole treatment in a 51-year-old korean man: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2014;29: 1170–1173. pmid:25120331
- 297. Taguchi M, Yokota M, Koyano H, Endo Y, Ozawa Y. Acute pancreatitis and parotitis induced by methimazole in a patient with Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;51: 667–670.
- 298. Yang M, Qu H, Deng HC. Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole in a patient with Graves’ disease. Thyroid Off J Am Thyroid Assoc. 2012;22: 94–96.
- 299. Kikuchi I, Miyata N, Yoshimura Y, Miyamoto K, Tachikawa N. Methimazole-induced acute pancreatitis: a case report. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2019;12: 239–242. pmid:30474825
- 300. Soylu AR, Dokmeci G, Tezel A, Cakir B, Umit H, Karahan N, et al. Lamivudine-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with decompensated Hbv-related chronic liver disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38: 134. pmid:14745288
- 301. Tuon FF, de Fatima Guastini CM, Castro Boulos MI. Acute pancreatitis associated with lamivudine therapy for chronic B hepatitis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12: 263. pmid:19030723
- 302. Famularo G, De SC, Minisola G, Nicotra GC. Cross-reaction allergic pancreatitis with ketoprofen and flurbiprofen . Pancreas. 2007;35: 187–188. pmid:17632327
- 303. Rodier JM, Pujade-Lauraine E, Batel-Copel L, Alexandre JH, Bernadou A. Granisetron-induced acute pancreatitis . J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1996;122: 132–133. pmid:8576281
- 304. Julve Pardo R, Garcia-Escrig M, Catala Barcelo J, del Val JH, Fernandez Ponsati J. [Acute pancreatitis as an effect of IV methylprednisolone in the treatment of optical neuritis]. Neurol Barc Spain. 1998;13: 372–373.
- 305. Sabre A, Guthrie MM, Maleknia R. Acute necrotising pancreatitis derived from low-dose corticosteroid use: an important reminder of clinical management. BMJ Case Rep. 2015;2015. Available: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=medl&NEWS=N&AN=26150628
- 306. Yoshizawa Y, Ogasa S, Izaki S, Kitamura K. Corticosteroid-induced pancreatitis in patients with autoimmune bullous disease: Case report and prospective study. Dermatol Basel Switz. 1999;198: 304–306.
- 307. Bär S, Daudel F, Zueger T. Ominous triad triggered by high-dose glucocorticosteroid therapy. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017. pmid:28630246
- 308. Nango D, Nakashima H, Hirose Y, Shiina M, Echizen H. Causal relationship between acute pancreatitis and methylprednisolone pulse therapy for fulminant autoimmune hepatitis: a case report and review of literature. J Pharm Health Care Sci. 2018;4: 14. pmid:29881634
- 309. Yahiaoui N, Roche M, Aissaoui-Hoffmann N, Keita BA, Mallaret M. Intravenous methylprednisolone induced acute pancreatitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;73: 645–646. pmid:28132081
- 310. Arellano L, Altaba A, Santamaria C, Garcia-Vicente JA. [Acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with losartan]. Aten Primaria. 2014;46: 316–317. pmid:24690523
- 311. Birck R, Keim V, Fiedler F, van der Woude FJ, Rohmeiss P. Pancreatitis after losartan. Lancet Lond Engl. 1998;351: 1178.
- 312. Bosch X. Losartan-induced acute pancreatitis . Ann Intern Med. 1997;127: 1043–1044.
- 313. Erenoglu C, Uluutku AH, Top C, Akin ML, Celenk T. Do MRI agents cause or worsen acute pancreatitis? Ulus Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Derg Turk J Trauma Emerg Surg TJTES. 2007;13: 78–79.
- 314. Terzi C, Sokmen S. Acute pancreatitis induced by magnetic-resonance-imaging contrast agent. Lancet Lond Engl. 1999;354: 1789–1790.
- 315. Morse D, Kumar N, Aisenberg G. Gadolinium-Induced acute pancreatitis. Consultant. 2018;58: 257–258.
- 316. Birchfield GR, Ward JH, Redman BG, Flaherty L, Samlowski WE. Acute pancreatitis associated with high-dose interleukin-2 immunotherapy for malignant melanoma. West J Med. 1990;152: 714–716. pmid:2353479
- 317. Corey WA, Doebbeling BN, DeJong KJ, Britigan BE. Metronidazole-induced acute pancreatitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13: 1213–1215. pmid:1775854
- 318. Feola DJ, Thornton AC. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis in a patient with recurrent vaginal trichomoniasis. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22: 1508–1510. pmid:12432979
- 319. Celifarco A, Warschauer C, Burakoff R. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84: 958–960. pmid:2756988
- 320. Loulergue P, Mir O. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis during HIV infection. AIDS Lond Engl. 2008;22: 545.
- 321. Nigwekar SU, Casey KJ. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis. A case report and review of literature. JOP J Pancreas. 2004;5: 516–519.
- 322. Plotnick BH, Cohen I, Tsang T, Cullinane T. Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103: 891–892. pmid:2415031
- 323. Romero Ganuza FJ. Pancreatitis associated with metronidazole. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;31: 264–265.
- 324. Sanford KA, Mayle JE, Dean HA, Greenbaum DS. Metronidazole-associated pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109: 756–757. pmid:3263823
- 325. Sura ME, Heinrich KA, Suseno M. Metronidazole-associated pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34: 1152–1155. pmid:11054984
- 326. Tsesmeli NE, Giannoulis KE, Savopoulos CG, Vretou EE, Ekonomou IA, Giannoulis EK. Acute pancreatitis as a possible consequence of metronidazole during a relapse of ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19: 805–806. pmid:17700268
- 327. VanWalraven AA, Edels M, Fong S. Pancreatitis caused by mefenamic acid. Can Med Assoc J. 1982;126: 894.
- 328. Wurm S, Schreiber F, Spindelboeck W. Mefenamic acid: A possible cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Pancreatol Off J Int Assoc Pancreatol IAP Al. 2015;15: 570–572.
- 329. Roblin X, Abinader Y, Baziz A. [Acute pancreatitis induced by gliclazide]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1992;16: 96.
- 330. del Val Antonana A, Ble Caso M, Higon Ballester MD, Ortuno Cortes JA. Lacosamide-induced acute pancreatitis with positive rechallenge test. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;48: 651.
- 331. Christophe JL. Pancreatitis induced by nitrofurantoin. Gut. 1994;35: 712–713. pmid:8200574
- 332. Mouallem M, Sirotin T, Farfel Z. Nitrofurantoin-induced pancreatitis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003;5: 754–755. pmid:14719480
- 333. Nelis GF. Nitrofurantoin-induced pancreatitis: report of a case. Gastroenterology. 1983;84: 1032–1034. pmid:6832555
- 334. Barthet M, Brunet P, Bernard JC, Dussol B, Rodor F, Jouglard J, et al. [Acute pancreatitis during treatment with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime)]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1994;18: 90–92.
- 335. De Lalla F, Pellizzer G, Gradoni L, Vespignani M, Franzetti M, Stecca C. Acute pancreatitis associated with the administration of meglumine antimonate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis . Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16: 730–731. pmid:8507769
- 336. Kuyucu N, Kara C, Bakirtac A, Tezic T. Successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with allopurinol plus ketoconazole in an infant who developed pancreatitis caused by meglumine antimoniate. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20: 455–457. pmid:11332679
- 337. Torrus D, Massa B, Boix V, Portilla J, Perez-Mateo M. Meglumine antimoniate-induced pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91: 820–821. pmid:8677970
- 338. Duboeuf T, De Widerspach-Thor A, Scotto B, Bacq Y. Acute glimepiride-induced pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2004;28: 409–410. pmid:15146162
- 339. Nwogbe B, Ferie J, Smith H, Gunawardena I, Dhatariya K. Significant lamotrigine overdose associated with acute pancreatitis. J R Soc Med. 2009;102: 118–119. pmid:19297653
- 340. Garcia Aguilera X, Teruel Sanchez-Vegazo C, Crespo Perez L, Moreira Vicente V. [Orlistat-induced acute pancreatitis]. Med Clin (Barc). 2008;130: 557.
- 341. Van der Heide H, Ten Haaft MA, Stricker BH. Pancreatitis caused by methyldopa. Br Med J Clin Res Ed. 1981;282: 1930–1931. pmid:6786677
- 342. Magill P, Ridgway PF, Conlon KC, Neary P. A case of probable ibuprofen-induced acute pancreatitis. J Pancreas. 2006;7: 311–314.
- 343. Moslim MA, Sodeman TC, Nawras AT. A Case of Suggested Ibuprofen-Induced Acute Pancreatitis. Am J Ther. 2016;23: e1918–e1921. pmid:27077468
- 344. Sevencan NO, Ozkan AE, Kayhan B. Linagliptin-related pancreatitis in a diabetic patient with biliary calculus: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97: e13284. pmid:30557974
- 345. Heluwaert F, Pofelski J, Germain E, Roblin X. [Piroxicam and acute pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2006;30: 635–636. pmid:16733395
- 346. Chen JL, Spinowitz N, Karwa M. Hypertriglyceridemia, acute pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly associated with mirtazapine therapy: a case report. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23: 940–944. pmid:12885107
- 347. Hussain A, Burke J. Mirtazapine associated with recurrent pancreatitis—a case report. J Psychopharmacol Oxf Engl. 2008;22: 336–337.
- 348. Lankisch PG, Werner HM. Mirtazapine: Another drug responsible for drug-induced acute pancreatitis? A letter of warning. Pancreas. 2003;26: 211. pmid:12604923
- 349. Bowers RD, Valanejad SM, Holombo AA. Mirtazapine-Induced Pancreatitis-A Case Report. J Pharm Pract. 2018; 897190018760645. pmid:29486665
- 350. Guerra M. Toxicity of indomethacin. Report of a case of acute pancreatitis. JAMA. 1967;200: 552–553. pmid:6071455
- 351. Memis D, Akalin E, Yucel T. Indomethacin-induced pancreatitis: a case report. JOP J Pancreas. 2005;6: 344–347.
- 352. Tobias PE, Varughese CA, Hanson AP, Gurnani PK. A Case of Linezolid Induced Toxicity. J Pharm Pract. 2018; 897190018782787. pmid:29911459
- 353. Anagnostopoulos GK, Tsiakos S, Margantinis G, Kostopoulos P, Arvanitidis D. Acute pancreatitis due to pravastatin therapy. J Pancreas. 2003;4: 129–132.
- 354. Tsigrelis C, Pitchumoni CS. Pravastatin: a potential cause for acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12: 7055–7057. pmid:17109506
- 355. Di Martino V, Ezenfis J, Benhamou Y, Bernard B, Opolon P, Bricaire F, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis related to the use of nelfinavir in HIV infection: report of a case with positive rechallenge. AIDS Lond Engl. 1999;13: 1421–1423.
- 356. Midgard R, Ertresvag K, Trondsen E, Spigset O. Life-threatening acute pancreatitis associated with interferon beta-1a treatment in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2005;65: 170–171.
- 357. Chis BA, Fodor D. Acute pancreatitis during GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment. A case report. Clujul Med 1957. 2018;91: 117–119. pmid:29440961
- 358. Boruchowicz A, Gallon P, Foissey D, Gower P, Gamblin C, Cuingnet P, et al. [Acute pancreatitis associated with corticosteroid treatment in Crohn’s disease]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2003;27: 560–561. pmid:12843925
- 359. Felig DM, Topazian M. Corticosteroid-induced pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124: 1016.
- 360. Goldberg BH, Bergstein JM. Acute respiratory distress in a child after steroid-induced pancreatitis. Pediatrics. 1978;61: 317–318. pmid:634691
- 361. Hamed I, Lindeman RD, Czerwinski AW. Case report: acute pancreatitis following corticosteroid and azathioprine therapy. Am J Med Sci. 1978;276: 211–219. pmid:736057
- 362. Riemenschneider TA, Wilson JF, Vernier RL. Glucocorticoid-induced pancreatitis in children. Pediatrics. 1968;41: 428–437. pmid:4295389
- 363. Safer L, El KA, Hochlaf S, Bdioui F, Halloul F, Saffar H. Acute pancreatitis in a patient receiving prednisone therapy . Sem Hop. 1995;71: 123–124.
- 364. Canovas B, de Luis DA, Beato P, Zurita P. [Acute lithiasic pancreatitis in patients treated with somatostatin analogs]. Rev Clin Esp. 2000;200: 182–183. pmid:10804774
- 365. Fredenrich A, Sosset C, Bernard JL, Sadoul JL, Freychet P. Acute pancreatitis after short-term octreotide . Lancet Lond Engl. 1991;338: 52–53.
- 366. Gradon JD, Schulman RH, Chapnick EK, Sepkowitz DV. Octreotide-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. South Med J. 1991;84: 1410–1411. pmid:1948240
- 367. Sadoul JL, Benchimol D, Thyss A, Freychet P. Acute pancreatitis following octreotide withdrawal. Am J Med. 1991;90: 763–764. pmid:2042694
- 368. Vidal J, Sacanella E, Munoz E, Miro JM, Navarro S. Acute pancreatitis related to octreotide in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pancreas. 1994;9: 395–397. pmid:8022766
- 369. Famularo G, Minisola G, Nicotra GC, De SC. Acute pancreatitis associated with irbesartan therapy . Pancreas. 2005;31: 294–295. pmid:16163066
- 370. Lee HM, Villa AF, Caudrelier S, Garnier R. Can loperamide cause acute pancreatitis? Pancreas. 2011;40: 780–781. pmid:21673538
- 371. Agarwal M, Lunt H, Scott R. Hormone replacement therapy, diabetes and pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridaemia. N Z Med J. 1997;110: 426. pmid:9418835
- 372. Blake WED, Pitcher ME. Estrogen-related pancreatitis in the setting of normal plasma lipids: case report. Menopause N Y N. 2003;10: 99–101.
- 373. Youssef SS, Iskandar SB, Scruggs J, Roy TM. Acute pancreatitis associated with omeprazole. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;43: 558–561. pmid:16372517
- 374. Passier JLM, van Puijenbroek EP, Jonkers GJPM, van Grootheest AC. Pancreatitis associated with the use of itraconazole. Neth J Med. 2010;68: 285–289. pmid:20558863
- 375. Nishioka S de A, Guedes LQ. Possible lovastatin-induced fatal necrotizing pancreatitis. J Pharm Technol. 2003;19: 283–286.
- 376. Falko JM, Thomas FB. Letter: Acute pancreatitis due to procainamide-induced lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med. 1975;83: 832–833. pmid:1200531
- 377. Bank S, Marks IN. Case reports. Hyperlipaemic pancreatitis and the pill. Postgrad Med J. 1960;46: 576–578.
- 378. Devars du Mayne JF, Bouchacourt E, Hardouin JP. [Acute pancreatitis cholestatic hepatitis induced by estroprogestatives]. Nouv Presse Med. 1980;9: 3550–3551.
- 379. Steiner RE, Orlowski RZ, Lee HC. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Ixazomib in a Multiple Myeloma Patient. Acta Haematol. 2018;139: 67–70. pmid:29402766
- 380. Straumann A, Bauer M, Pichler WJ, Pirovino M. Acute pancreatitis due to pyritinOxyphenbutazone-induced sialadenitis, intrahepatic cholestasis and pancreatitisol: an immune-mediated phenomenon. Gastroenterology. 1998;115: 452–454. pmid:9679051
- 381. Bosch JA, Valdes M, Oristrell J, Pigrau C, Ordi J. Acta Gastro-Enterol Belg. 1985;48: 529–530.
- 382. Flamenbaum M, Abergel A, Marcato N, Zenut M, Kemeny JL, Cassan P. [Regressive fulminant hepatitis, acute pancreatitis and renal insufficiency after taking ketoprofen]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1998;22: 975–976. pmid:9881281
- 383. Maroy B. [Benign acute pancreatitis probably due to taking ketoprofen]. Therapie. 1998;53: 602–603. pmid:10070244
- 384. Rosenfeld GA, Chang A, Poulin M, Kwan P, Yoshida E. Cholestatic jaundice, acute kidney injury and acute pancreatitis secondary to the recreational use of methandrostenolone: A case report. J Med Case Reports. 2011;5: no.
- 385. Anagnostopoulos GK, Kostopoulos P, Tsiakos S, Margantinis G, Arvanitidis D. Fulminant pancreatitis associated with ramipril therapy. Pancreas. 2003;27: 278–279. pmid:14508138
- 386. Kanbay M, Korkmaz M, Yilmaz U, Gur G, Boyacioglu S. Acute pancreatitis due to ramipril therapy. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80: 617–618. pmid:15467001
- 387. Vallianou N, Geladari E, Trigkidis K, Skoula A, Kokkinakis E. Ramipril-induced acute pancreatitis a case report and literature review. Arch Hell Med. 2017;34: 821–823.
- 388. Adam JP, Gauthier P, Letarte N. Safe administration of docetaxel after weekly paclitaxel-induced acute pancreatitis. J Oncol Pharm Pract Off Publ Int Soc Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016. Available: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=medp&NEWS=N&AN=27466225
- 389. Kumar DM, Sundar S, Vasanthan S. A case of Paclitaxel-induced pancreatitis . Clin Oncol. 2003;15: 35.
- 390. McMahon MA, Kearns G, McCaffrey J, Grogan L. Association between paclitaxel and necrotic pancreatitis. Ir Med J. 2006;99: no.
- 391. Raiss H, El Amarti L, Tigaud JD, Layachi M, Bruyas A, Boutayeb S, et al. Probable paclitaxel-induced pancreatitis: uncommon case report and literature review. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2017;8: E80–E83. pmid:29299374
- 392. Famularo G, Bizzarri C, Nicotra GC. Acute pancreatitis caused by ketorolac tromethamine . J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;34: 283–284. pmid:11873116
- 393. Goyal SB, Goyal RS. Ketorolac tromethamine-induced acute pacreatitis . Arch Intern Med. 1998;158: 411.
- 394. Sato K, Hayashi M, Utsugi M, Ishizuka T, Takagi H, Mori M. Acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with micafungin. Clin Ther. 2007;29: 1468–1473. pmid:17825698
- 395. Herrmann R, Shaw RG, Fone DJ. Ranitidine-associated recurrent acute pancreatitis. Aust N Z J Med. 1990;20: 243–244. pmid:2372274
- 396. Tan WW, Chapnick EK, Abter EI, Haddad S, Zimbalist EH, Lutwick LI. Paromomycin-associated pancreatitis in HIV-related cryptosporidiosis. Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29: 22–24. pmid:7711341
- 397. Battaglia M, Ditonno P, Palazzo S, Bettocchi C, Garofalo L, Selvaggi FP. Lethal somatostatin analog-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a patient with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40: 423–425. pmid:17060090
- 398. Sequeira Lopes da Silva JT, Gonzalez Casas O, Bejarano Moguel V, Lobo Pascua M, Lopez-Santamaria Redondo A, Cordero Torres R. Lanreotide autogel-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with acromegaly. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;36: 21–25.
- 399. Pandey K, Singh D, Lal CS, Das VNR, Das P. Fatal acute pancreatitis in a patient with visceral leishmaniasis during miltefosine treatment. J Postgrad Med. 2013;59: 306–308. pmid:24346389
- 400. Chintanaboina J, Gopavaram D. Recurrent acute pancreatitis probably induced by rosuvastatin therapy: A case report. Case Rep Med. 2012;2012: no.
- 401. Echinard E, Dupon M, Malou M, Ragnaud JM, Lacut JY, Albin H. [Acute fatal pancreatitis following treatment with pentamidine]. Therapie. 1986;41: 520. pmid:3810550
- 402. Foisy MM, Slayter KL, Hewitt RG, Morse GD. Pancreatitis during intravenous pentamidine therapy in an AIDS patient with prior exposure to didanosine. Ann Pharmacother. 1994;28: 1025–1028. pmid:7803875
- 403. Hart CC. Aerosolized pentamidine and pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111: 691.
- 404. Herer B, Chinet T, Labrune S, Collignon MA, Chretien J, Huchon G. Pancreatitis associated with pentamidine by aerosol. BMJ. 1989;298: 605.
- 405. Kumar S, Schnadig VJ, MacGregor MG. Fatal acute pancreatitis associated with pentamidine therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84: 451–453. pmid:2784622
- 406. Salah A, Lortholary O, Lhote F, Cohen P, Guillevin L. [Acute pancreatitis induced by pentamidine isethionate in aerosols]. Presse Medicale Paris Fr 1983. 1994;23: 49.
- 407. Harris AG, Caroli-Bosc FX, Demarquay JF, Hastier P, Delmont J. Acute pancreatitis in an octreotide-treated AIDS patient—Suggested alternative mechanisms . Pancreas. 1995;11: 318–319. pmid:8577690
- 408. Murphey SA, Josephs AS. Acute pancreatitis associated with pentamidine therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1981;141: 56–58. pmid:6969581
- 409. O’Neil MG, Selub SE, Hak LJ. Pancreatitis during pentamidine therapy in patients with AIDS. Clin Pharm. 1991;10: 56–59. pmid:1999087
- 410. Pais JR, Cazorla C, Novo E, Viana A. Massive haemorrhage from rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst after pentamidine-associated pancreatitis. Eur J Med. 1992;1: 251–253. pmid:1341455
- 411. Pauwels A, Eliaszewicz M, Larrey D, Lacassin F, Poirier JM, Meyohas MC, et al. Pentamidine-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with AIDS. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1990;12: 457–459. pmid:1697871
- 412. Salmeron S, Petitpretz P, Katlama C, Herve P, Brivet F, Simonneau G, et al. Pentamidine and pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105: 140–141.
- 413. Sauleda J, Gea JG, Aguar MC, Aran X, Pasto M, Broquetas JM. Probable pentamidine-induced acute pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 1994;28: 52–53. pmid:8123961
- 414. Singh G, el-Gadi SM, Sparks RA. Pancreatitis associated with aerosolised pentamidine. Genitourin Med. 1995;71: 130–131. pmid:7744406
- 415. Villamil A, Hammer RA, Rodriguez FH. Edematous pancreatitis associated with intravenous pentamidine. South Med J. 1991;84: 796–798. pmid:2052980
- 416. Wood G, Wetzig N, Hogan P, Whitby M. Survival from pentamidine induced pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus. Aust N Z J Med. 1991;21: 341–342. pmid:1953514
- 417. Zuger A, Wolf BZ, el-Sadr W, Simberkoff MS, Rahal JJ. Pentamidine-associated fatal acute pancreatitis. JAMA. 1986;256: 2383–2385. pmid:3490588
- 418. Kawakami H, Kubota Y, Ban T, Shibata N, Hosokawa A. Lenvatinib-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Associated With a Pancreatic Pseudocyst and Splenic Pseudoaneurysms. Pancreas. 2018;47: e34–e35. pmid:29894425
- 419. Mori S, Ebihara K. A sudden onset of diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pancreatitis after introduction of mizoribine therapy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18: 634–638. pmid:18651203
- 420. Couderc M, Blanc P, Rouillon JM, Bauret P, Larrey D, Michel H. [A new case of simvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 986–987.
- 421. Johnson JL, Loomis IB. A case of simvastatin-associated pancreatitis and review of statin-associated pancreatitis. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26: 414–422. pmid:16503723
- 422. Lons T, Chousterman M. [Simvastatin: a new drug responsible for acute pancreatitis?]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 93–94. pmid:2010079
- 423. Pezzilli R, Ceciliato R, Corinaldesi R, Barakat B. Acute pancreatitis due to simvastatin therapy: Increased severity after rechallenge. Dig Liver Dis. 2004;36: 639–640. pmid:15460851
- 424. Ramdani M, Schmitt AM, Liautard J, Duhamel O, Legroux P, Gislon J, et al. [Simvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis: two cases]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15: 986.
- 425. Famularo G, Minisola G, Nicotra GC, De Simone C. Idiosyncratic pancreatitis associated with perindopril. JOP J Pancreas. 2005;6: 605–607.
- 426. Gallego-Rojo FJ, Gonzalez-Calvin JL, Guilarte J, Casado-Caballero FJ, Bellot V. Perindopril-induced acute pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1997;42: 1789–1791. pmid:9286249
- 427. Artero A, Bourguet M, Lorente RI, Real JT. [Acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with liraglutide]. Med Clin (Barc). 2013;141: 368–369.
- 428. Bourezane H, Kastler B, Kantelip JP. Late and severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a patient with liraglutide. Therapie. 2012;67: 539–543. pmid:23249582
- 429. Famularo G, Gasbarrone L, Minisola G. Pancreatitis during treatment with liraglutide. J Pancreas. 2012;13: 540–541.
- 430. Knezevich E, Crnic T, Kershaw S, Drincic A. Liraglutide-associated acute pancreatitis. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2012;69: 386–389.
- 431. Nakata H, Sugitani S, Yamaji S, Otsu S, Higashi Y, Ohtomo Y, et al. Pancreatitis with pancreatic tail swelling associated with incretin-based therapies detected radiologically in two cases of diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn. 2012;51: 3045–3049.
- 432. Das S, Mondal S, Dey JK, Bandyopadhyay S, Saha I, Tripathi SK. A case of montelukast induced hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. J Young Pharm JYP. 2013;5: 64–66. pmid:24023457
- 433. Amar S, Wu KJ, Tan WW. Sorafenib-induced pancreatitis . Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82: 521.
- 434. Ayyildiz T, Aydin T, Eminler AT, Yildirim C, Irak K, Kiyici M, et al. Sorafenib-induced pancreatitis. J Exp Clin Med Turk. 2015;32: 133–135.
- 435. Kobayashi Y, Kanemitu T, Kamoto A, Satoh M, Mori N, Sekii K, et al. Painless acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib treatment: A case report. Med Oncol. 2011;28: 463–465. pmid:20300970
- 436. Li M, Srinivas S. Acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib. South Med J. 2007;100: 909–911. pmid:17902294
- 437. Sevin A, Chen A, Atkinson B. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor induced pancreatitis. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2013;19: 257–260. pmid:23034406
- 438. Kattah Martinez LX, Marín Carrillo LF, Rojas Melo L. Sorafenib-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Eur Thyroid J. 2018;7: 145–148. pmid:30023347
- 439. Twohig P, Rivington J. Sorafenib-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019;50: 137–142. pmid:28664318
- 440. Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Shibata C, Koyama K, Miura K, Takahashi K, et al. Acute pancreatitis complicating ulcerative colitis under administration of corticosteroid in surgical cases . J Gastroenterol. 2004;39: 592–594. pmid:15235881
- 441. Keefe M, Munro F. Acute pancreatitis: a fatal complication of treatment of bullous pemphigoid with systemic corticosteroids. Dermatologica. 1989;179: 73–75. pmid:2676630
- 442. Fathallah N, Zamy M, Slim R, Fain O, Hmouda H, Bouraoui K, et al. Acute pancreatitis in the course of meprobamate poisoning. JOP J Pancreas. 2011;12: 404–406.
- 443. Einollahi B, Dolatimehr F. Acute pancreatitis induced by mycophenolate mofetil in a kidney transplant patient. J Nephropharmacology. 2015;4: 72–74.
- 444. Klein SM, Khan MA. Hepatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis and pancreatitis in association with sulindac therapy. J Rheumatol. 1983;10: 512–513. pmid:6224935
- 445. Lerche A, Vyberg M, Kirkegaard E. Acute cholangitis and pancreatitis associated with sulindac (clinoril). Histopathology. 1987;11: 647–653. pmid:3623432
- 446. Lilly EL. Pancreatitis after administration of sulindac. JAMA. 1981;246: 2680. pmid:7310962
- 447. Memon AN. Pancreatitis and sulindac. Ann Intern Med. 1982;97: 139.
- 448. Siefkin AD. Sulindac and pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93: 932–933. pmid:7447197
- 449. Sugerman HJ. Sulindac-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking gallstone pancreatitis. Am Surg. 1989;55: 536–538. pmid:2774359
- 450. Zygmunt DJ, Williams HJ, Bienz SR. Acute pancreatitis associated with long-term sulindac therapy. West J Med. 1986;144: 461–462. pmid:3716404
- 451. Betrosian AP, Balla M, Papanikolaou M, Kofinas G, Georgiadis G. Post-operative pancreatitis after propofol administration . Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45: 1052. pmid:11576064
- 452. Bird H, Brim V. Propofol and postoperative pancreatitis. Anaesthesia. 2000;55: 506–507.
- 453. Bustamante SE, Appachi E. Acute pancreatitis after anesthesia with propofol in a child with glycogen storage disease type IA. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16: 680–683. pmid:16719886
- 454. Gottschling S, Larsen R, Meyer S, Graf N, Reinhard H. Acute pancreatitis induced by short-term propofol administration. Paediatr Anaesth. 2005;15: 1006–1008. pmid:16238566
- 455. Jawaid Q, Presti ME, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Burton FR. Case report: Acute pancreatitis after single-dose exposure to propofol: A case report and review of literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47: 614–618. pmid:11911351
- 456. Kumar AN, Schwartz DE, Lim KG. Propofol-induced pancreatitis: Recurrence of pancreatitis after rechallenge. Chest. 1999;115: 1198–1199. pmid:10208230
- 457. Leisure GS, O’Flaherty J, Green L, Jones DR. Propofol and postoperative pancreatitis. Anesthesiology. 1996;84: 224–227. pmid:8572338
- 458. Muniraj T, Aslanian HR. Hypertriglyceridemia independent propofol-induced pancreatitis. JOP J Pancreas. 2012;13: 451–453.
- 459. Priya G, Bhagat H, Pandia MP, Chaturvedi A, Seth A, Goswami R. Can propofol precipitate pancreatitis in patients with Cushing’s syndrome? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005;49: 1381–1383. pmid:16146480
- 460. Ting TW, Lee JH. Acute pancreatitis after propofol infusion in a teenage patient. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2012;40: 561–562. pmid:22577931
- 461. Anderson PE, Ellis GGJ, Austin SM. Case report: metolazone-associated hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis. Am J Med Sci. 1991;302: 235–237. pmid:1928234
- 462. Fuchs JEJ, Keith MR, Galanos AN. Probable metolazone-induced pancreatitis. DICP Ann Pharmacother. 1989;23: 711.
- 463. Shindano A, Marot L, Geubel AP. Nifuroxazide-induced acute pancreatitis: A new side-effect for an old drug? Acta Gastro-Enterol Belg. 2007;70: 32–33.
- 464. Alagozlu H, Cindoruk M, Unal S. Tamoxifen-induced severe hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26: 297–302. pmid:17163263
- 465. Elisaf MS, Nakou K, Liamis G, Pavlidis NA. Tamoxifen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol. 2000;11: 1067–1069.
- 466. Kim YA, Lee S, Jung JW, Kwon YJ, Lee GB, Shin DG, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus. Chin J Cancer Res Chung-Kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu. 2014;26: 341–344. pmid:25035662
- 467. Sakhri J, Salem CB, Harbi H, Fathallah N, Ltaief R. Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with positive rechallenge. J Pancreas. 2010;11: 382–384.
- 468. Singh HK, Prasad MS, Kandasamy AK, Dharanipragada K. Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing acute pancreatitis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2016;7: 38–40. pmid:27127396
- 469. Kataria PSC, Kendre PP, Patel AA, Bohra MZ, Tahiliani N. Tamoxifen Induced Pancreatitis: An Unusual Complication of Commonly used Drug. J Clin Diagn Res JCDR. 2017;11: XD05–XD06. pmid:28969260
- 470. Chang TG, Chiu NY, Hsu WY. Acute pancreatitis associated with quetiapine use in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014;34: 382–383. pmid:24699039
- 471. Liou LS, Hung YJ, Hsieh CH, Hsiao FC. Aggravation of hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a bipolar patient treated with quetiapine. Yonsei Med J. 2014;55: 831–833. pmid:24719155
- 472. Boyle MP. Minocycline-induced pancreatitis in cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2001;119: 1283–1285. pmid:11296204
- 473. Chetaille E, Delcenserie R, Yzet T, Decocq G, Biour M, Andrejak M. [Minocycline involvement in two cases of acute pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1998;22: 555–556. pmid:9762297
- 474. Gabriel JG, Bhogal S, Kapila A. Minocycline-Associated Pancreatitis. Am J Ther. 2018;25: e556–e557. pmid:28767455
- 475. Drabo YJ, Niakara A, Ouedraogo H. [Acute pancreatitis secondary to administration or norfloxacin]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2002;21: 68–69. pmid:11878127
- 476. Ventura C, Urich R, Skinner S, Bina R, Chuang KY, Van Thiel DH, et al. First report of telaprevir-induced pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58: 887–888. pmid:23392743
- 477. Castro JL, Rabago LR, Vello R, Perez MD, Redondo M, Blesa C, et al. [Rifampicin as a cause of acute pancreatitis]. Rev Espanola Enfermedades Dig Organo Of Soc Espanola Patol Dig. 2000;92: 822–823.
- 478. Pedregal M, Larraona JL, Tristancho A, Lopez T, Maraver A. Acute pancreatitis during naltrexone treatment . Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1992;15: 433–434.
- 479. Verma R. Naltrexone-Associated Acute Pancreatitis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2016;18. pmid:27922226
- 480. Murtaza G, Faqah A, Konowitz N, Lu H, Kuruvilla A, Adhikari S. Acute Pancreatitis Related to a Chemotherapy Drug. World J Oncol. 2017;8: 18–19. pmid:28983380
- 481. Elmore MF, Rogge JD. Tetracycline-induced pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1981;81: 1134–1136. pmid:6456964
- 482. Nicolau DP, Mengedoht DE, Kline JJ. Tetracycline-induced pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86: 1669–1671. pmid:1951248
- 483. Torosis J, Vender R. Tetracycline-induced pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987;9: 580–581. pmid:3680912
- 484. Berent I, Carabeth J, Cordero MM, Cordero R, Sugerman B, Robinson D. Pancreatitis associated with risperidone treatment? . Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154: 130–131.
- 485. Cordeiro Q Jr, Elkis H. Pancreatitis and cholestatic hepatitis induced by risperidone. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;21: 529–530. pmid:11593080
- 486. Hanft A, Bourgeois J. Risperidone and pancreatitis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43: 1458–1459. pmid:15564814
- 487. Kawabe K, Ueno SI. A case of acute pancreatitis associated with risperidone treatment. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2014;12: 67–68. pmid:24851124
- 488. Aygencel G, Akbuga B, Keles A. Acute pancreatitis following naproxen intake. Eur J Emerg Med Off J Eur Soc Emerg Med. 2006;13: 372.
- 489. Castiella A, Lopez P, Bujanda L, Arenas JI. Possible association of acute pancreatitis with naproxen. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1995;21: 258. pmid:8648068
- 490. Du Ville L, Debeuckelaere S, Reynaert H, Devis G. Pancreatitis associated with naproxen. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88: 464.
- 491. Wu SM, Wolf JW. Pheniformin and pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1978;88: 128.
- 492. Bernas Albeniz A, Aveiga Valencia DA, Etxeberria Zabala L, Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia Bilbao J, Aguilera Celorrio L. Acute pancreatitis in ICU secondary to treatment with tigecycline. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2017;64: 46–49. pmid:27609674
- 493. Davido B, Shourick J, Makhloufi S, Dinh A, Salomon J. True incidence of tigecycline-induced pancreatitis: How many cases are we missing? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71: 2994–2995. pmid:27365188
- 494. Gilson M, Moachon L, Jeanne L, Dumaine V, Eyrolle L, Morand P, et al. Acute pancreatitis related to tigecycline: case report and review of the literature. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40: 681–683. pmid:18979610
- 495. Hung WY, Kogelman L, Volpe G, Iafrati M, Davidson L. Tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis: case report and literature review. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34: 486–489. pmid:19540093
- 496. Lipshitz J, Kruh J, Cheung P, Cassagnol M. Tigecycline-induced pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43: 93.
- 497. Marot JC, Jonckheere S, Munyentwali H, Belkhir L, Vandercam B, Yombi JC. Tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis: about two cases and review of the literature. Acta Clin Belg. 2012;67: 229–232. pmid:22897076
- 498. De Mesa C, Dajoyag-Mejia MA, Regina I, Darouiche RO. Tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis with rechallenge: A case report. J Pharm Technol. 2013;29: 3–8.
- 499. Prot-Labarthe S, Youdaren R, Benkerrou M, Basmaci R, Lorrot M. Pediatric acute pancreatitis related to tigecycline. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29: 890–891.
- 500. Lin J, Wang R, Chen J. Tigecycline-induced acute pancreatitis in a renal transplant patient: a case report and literature review. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18: 201. pmid:29720098
- 501. Saez-Royuela F, Pacho E, Hernandez D, Marin G. Acute pancreatitis caused by salazopyrine. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1988;11: 434–435.
- 502. Engel T, Justo D, Amitai M, Volchek Y, Mayan H. Nilotinib-associated acute pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47: e3. pmid:23300151
- 503. Yamada T, Nannya Y, Shimizu M, Seishima M, Tsurumi H. Symptomatic Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Nilotinib: A Report of Two Cases. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn. 2016;55: 3495–3497.
- 504. Lambrianides AL, Rosin RD. Acute pancreatitis complicating excessive intake of phenolphthalein. Postgrad Med J. 1984;60: 491–492. pmid:6463003
- 505. Chung LW, Yeh SP, Hsieh CY, Liao YM, Huang HH, Lin CY, et al. Life-threatening acute pancreatitis due to thalidomide therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease . Ann Hematol. 2008;87: 421–423. pmid:18040684
- 506. Lee CF, Sun MS, Tai YK. Saxagliptin-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn. 2014;53: 1351–1354.
- 507. Baysal B, Kayar Y, Ozmen A, ElShobaky M, Mahdi N, Ince AT, et al. Olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2015;26: 289–290. pmid:26006214
- 508. Belli H, Sertbas Y, Bayik Y. Olanzapine-induced diabetes due to pancreatitis. Indian J Gastroenterol Off J Indian Soc Gastroenterol. 2005;24: 273.
- 509. Buszek SM, Roy-Chaudhury P, Yadlapalli G. Olanzapine-induced hypertriglyceridemia resulting in necrotizing pancreatitis. ACG Case Rep J. 2016;3: no.
- 510. Doucette DE, Grenier JP, Robertson PS. Olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34: 1128–1131. pmid:11054978
- 511. Gupta A, Ghoshal UC, Mohindra S, Saraswat VA. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis following olanzapine therapy. Trop Gastroenterol Off J Dig Dis Found. 2014;35: 132–134.
- 512. Rizos E, Tournikioti K, Alevyzakis E, Peppa M, Papazaxos K, Zorbas G, et al. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Following Olanzapine Treatment and 759C/T Polymorphism of HTR2C Gene: A Case Report. Vivo Athens Greece. 2015;29: 529–531.
- 513. Nishawala MA, Callaghan M, Malatack JJ, Moughan B, Ambrosini PJ, Price B, et al. Pancreatitis associated with serotonin-dopamine antagonists. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1997;7: 211–213. pmid:9466237
- 514. Rossor AM, Leech N, Neely RD. Olanzapine-induced chylomicronemia presenting as acute pancreatitis. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27: 395–396. pmid:17632226
- 515. Samanta S, Banik K, Baronia AK. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine. Indian J Anaesth. 2014;58: 323–326. pmid:25024479
- 516. Waage C, Carlsson H, Nielsen EW. Olanzapine-induced pancreatitis: a case report. JOP J Pancreas. 2004;5: 388–391.
- 517. Franga DL, Harris JA. Polyethylene glycol-induced pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;52: 789–791. pmid:11115922
- 518. Antonow DR. Acute pancreatitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104: 363–365. pmid:2418721
- 519. Bartels RH, van der Spek JA, Oosten HR. Acute pancreatitis due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. South Med J. 1992;85: 1006–1007. pmid:1411717
- 520. Colomina Aviles J, Quintana Tomas L, Arenas Gracia M, Llorca Martinez E. [Pancreatitis associated with cotrimoxazole in an HIV-positive patient]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 1997;14: 487–488.
- 521. Cortes J, Arroyo E, Reus S, Climent E, Portilla J. Acute pancreatitis due to cotrimoxazole and HIV infection: A case report. Farm Hosp. 1999;23: 325–326.
- 522. Floris-Moore MA, Amodio-Groton MI, Catalano MT. Adverse Reactions to Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in AIDS. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37: 1810–1813. pmid:14632594
- 523. Holla S, Ommurugan B, Amita D, Bairy KL, Saravu K, Madireddi J. A rare case of Cotrimoxazole induced acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury and crystalluria (APAKIC). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2016;7: 1099–1102.
- 524. Park TY, Oh HC, Do JH. A case of recurrent pancreatitis induced by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole re-exposure. Gut Liver. 2010;4: 250–252. pmid:20559530
- 525. Versleijen MWJ, Naber AHJ, Riksen NP, Wanten GJ, Debruyne FMJ. Recurrent pancreatitis after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole rechallenge. Neth J Med. 2005;63: 275–277. pmid:16093580
- 526. Jung M, Kim J, Lee JY, Kim M, Kim S-H, Ahn K. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induces acute pancreatitis associated with drug-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7: 336–338. pmid:29940316
- 527. Cortes E, Ribera E, Cucurull E, de Otero J, Ocana I, Pahissa A. [Acute pancreatitis due to antimonials in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection]. Med Clin (Barc). 1995;104: 578–580.
- 528. Domingo P, Ferrer S, Kolle L, Munoz C, Rodriguez P. Acute pancreatitis associated with sodium stibogluconate treatment in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus . Arch Intern Med. 1996;156: 1029. pmid:8624172
- 529. Donovan KL, White AD, Cooke DA, Fisher DJ. Pancreatitis and palindromic arthropathy with effusions associated with sodium stibogluconate treatment in a renal transplant recipient. J Infect. 1990;21: 107–110. pmid:2166765
- 530. Gasser Jr, Magill AJ, Oster CN, Franke ED, Grogl M, Berman JD. Pancreatitis induced by pentavalent antimonial agents during treatment of leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18: 83–90. pmid:7519887
- 531. Halim MA, Alfurayh O, Kalin ME, Dammas S, Al-Eisa A, Damanhouri G. Successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with allopurinol plus ketoconazole in a renal transplant recipient after the occurrence of pancreatitis due to stibogluconate. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16: 397–399. pmid:8135901
- 532. McBride MO, Linney M, Davidson RN, Weber JN. Pancreatic necrosis following treatment of leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 1995;21: 710.
- 533. McCarthy AE, Keystone JS, Kain KC. Pancreatitis occurring during therapy with stibogluconate: Two case reports . Clin Infect Dis. 1993;17: 952–953. pmid:7741821
- 534. Santos J, Rivero A, Marquez M. [Acute pancreatitis with a fatal evolution due to antimonials in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 2000;17: 562–563.
- 535. Valencia ME, Laguna F, Gonzalez Lahoz J. [Nephrotic syndrome and acute pancreatitis related to glucantime administration]. An Med Interna Madr Spain 1984. 2000;17: 54.
- 536. Das S, Ganguly A, Ghosh A, Mondal S, Dey JK, Saha I. Oral pantoprazole-induced acute pancreatitis in an 11-year-old child. Ther Drug Monit. 2012;34: 242–244. pmid:22495426
- 537. Lopes Mondejar P, Soto MP, Vences F, Hidalgo AM. Acute pancreatitis after pregabalin administration. Endocrinol Nutr. 2007;54: 340.
- 538. Muluneh B, Buie LW, Collichio F. Vemurafenib-associated pancreatitis: case report. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33: e43–e44. pmid:23436544
- 539. Abdullah AM, Scott RB, Martin SR. Acute pancreatitis secondary to 5-aminosalicylic acid in a child with ulcerative colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993;17: 441–444. pmid:8145103
- 540. Aubry A, Alandry C, Lemiere C. [Acute pancreatitis during treatment with salazosulfapyridine]. Presse Medicale Paris Fr 1983. 1989;18: 80.
- 541. Delgado Fontaneda E, Garcia Campos F, Ruiz Rebollo L, Ibarra Pena B, Moreto Canela M. [Acute pancreatitis caused by salazopyrine. An unusual association]. Rev Espanola Enfermedades Dig Organo Of Soc Espanola Patol Dig. 1991;79: 439–440.
- 542. Faintuch J, Mott CB, Machado MC. Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis during sulfasalazine therapy. Int Surg. 1985;70: 271–272. pmid:2872181
- 543. Rubin R. Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89: 789–791. pmid:7909645
- 544. Collet T, Even C, Peytier A, Piquet MA, Dao T, Verwaerde JC. [Acute pancreatitis and propylthiouracil]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1995;19: 952. pmid:8746057
- 545. Ali MF, Loh KY. Sodium valproate induced necrotising pancreatitis: A case report. Malays Fam Physician Off J Acad Fam Physicians Malays. 2013;8: 28–30.
- 546. Atam V, Singh J, Agrawal K, Dinkar A, Atam I. A case report of valproate-induced acute pancreatitis. JMS—J Med Soc. 2017;31: 48–49.
- 547. Ayoola EA, Dahmash NS, Ajarim D, Al-Mugairin SM. Delayed multiple toxic reactions possibly related to valproate therapy in a Saudi patient . Ann Saudi Med. 1994;14: 163–164. pmid:17586878
- 548. Bahamonde Carrasco A, Moran Blanco A, Olcoz Goni JL. [Acute pancreatitis caused by valproic acid: apropos a case]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;19: 253–254. pmid:8752568
- 549. Batalden PB, Van Dyne BJ, Cloyd J. Pancreatitis associated with valproic acid therapy. Pediatrics. 1979;64: 520–522. pmid:114966
- 550. Binek J, Hany A, Heer M. Valproic-acid-induced pancreatitis. Case report and review of the literature. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991;13: 690–693. pmid:1761843
- 551. Blain H, Baty V, Blain A, Trechot P, Jeandel C. Acute pancreatitis induced by valpromide: A first case report. Eur J Intern Med. 1999;10: 117–119.
- 552. Buzan RD, Firestone D, Thomas M, Dubovsky SL. Valproate-associated pancreatitis and cholecystitis in six mentally retarded adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56: 529–532. pmid:7592507
- 553. Cooper MA, Groll A. A case of chronic pancreatic insufficiency due to valproic acid in a child. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15: 127–130. pmid:11240383
- 554. Croizet O, Louvel D, Teuliere JP, Buscail L, Escourrou J, Frexinos J. [Acute pancreatitis induced by valproic acid]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1994;18: 910–911. pmid:7875411
- 555. Evans RJ, Miranda RN, Jordan J, Krolikowski FJ. Fatal acute pancreatitis caused by valproic acid. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995;16: 62–65. pmid:7771387
- 556. Fecik SE, Stoner SC, Raphael J, Lindsey C. Recurrent acute pancreatitis associated with valproic acid use for mood stabilization . J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;19: 483–484. pmid:10505598
- 557. Grauso-Eby NL, Goldfarb O, Feldman-Winter LB, McAbee GN. Acute pancreatitis in children from Valproic acid: case series and review. Pediatr Neurol. 2003;28: 145–148. pmid:12699868
- 558. Guevara-Campos J, Gonzalez-Guevara L, Vacaro-Bolivar I, Rojas JM. Acute pancreatitis associated to the use of valproic acid. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67: 513–515. pmid:19623456
- 559. Houben ML, Wilting I, Stroink H, van Dijken PJ. Pancreatitis, complicated by a pancreatic pseudocyst associated with the use of valproic acid. Eur J Paediatr Neurol EJPN Off J Eur Paediatr Neurol Soc. 2005;9: 77–80.
- 560. Jetha MM, Fiorillo L. Xanthomata and diabetes in an adolescent with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia 9 yr after valproate-induced pancreatitis. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012;13: 444–447. pmid:22251869
- 561. Kayemba Kay’s Kabangu S, Bovier Lapierre M, Jalaguier E. [Acute pancreatitis and valproic acid]. Pediatrie. 1991;46: 839–843. pmid:1667041
- 562. dos Santos BL, Fernandes RMF, Neves FF. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in an adult. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010;68: 135–136. pmid:20339670
- 563. Lott JA, Bond LW, Bobo RC, McClung HJ, Murray RD. Valproic acid-associated pancreatitis: report of three cases and a brief review. Clin Chem. 1990;36: 395–397. pmid:2105864
- 564. Moreiras Plaza M, Rodriguez Goyanes G, Cuina L, Alonso R. On the toxicity of valproic-acid. Clin Nephrol. 1999;51: 187–189. pmid:10099893
- 565. Murphy MJ, Lyon IW, Taylor JW, Mitts G. Valproic acid associated pancreatitis in an adult. Lancet Lond Engl. 1981;1: 41–42.
- 566. Ng JY, Disney AP, Jones TE, Purdie G. Acute pancreatitis and sodium valproate. Med J Aust. 1982;2: 362. pmid:6815441
- 567. Otusbo S, Huruzono T, Kobae H, Yoshimi S, Miyata K. Pancreatitis with normal serum amylase associated with sodium valproate: a case report. Brain Dev. 1995;17: 219–221. pmid:7573766
- 568. Ozaydin E, Yukselgungor H, Kose G. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis due to the use of valproic acid in a child. Eur J Paediatr Neurol EJPN Off J Eur Paediatr Neurol Soc. 2008;12: 141–143.
- 569. Parker PH, Helinek GL, Ghishan FK, Greene HL. Recurrent pancreatitis induced by valproic acid. A case report and review of the literature. Gastroenterology. 1981;80: 826–828. pmid:6162706
- 570. Sasaki M, Tonoda S, Aoki Y, Katsumi M. Pancreatitis due to valproic acid. Lancet Lond Engl. 1980;1: 1196.
- 571. Sinclair DB, Berg M, Breault R. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in childhood epilepsy: case series and review. J Child Neurol. 2004;19: 498–502. pmid:15526953
- 572. Taira N, Nishi H, Mano M, Waki N, Tsugita Y, Takashima S, et al. Pancreatitis induced by valproic acid: report of a case. Surg Today. 2001;31: 1027–1031. pmid:11766076
- 573. Talwar D. Valproate-associated acute pancreatitis in a child with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. J Child Neurol. 1994;9: 36–37.
- 574. Tobias JD, Capers C, Sims P, Holcomb GW. Necrotizing pancreatitis after 10 years of therapy with valproic acid. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1995;34: 446–448.
- 575. Veri K, Uibo O, Talvik I, Talvik T. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Med Kaunas Lith. 2013;49: 487–489.
- 576. Williams LH, Reynolds RP, Emery JL. Pancreatitis during sodium valproate treatment. Arch Dis Child. 1983;58: 543–544. pmid:6409011
- 577. Wyllie E, Wyllie R, Cruse RP, Erenberg G, Rothner AD. Pancreatitis associated with valproic acid therapy. Am J Dis Child 1960. 1984;138: 912–914.
- 578. Yaman A, Kendirli T, Odek C, Bektas O, Kuloglu Z, Kologlu M, et al. Valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis and multiorgan failure in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29: 659–661. pmid:23640149
- 579. Yazdani K, Lippmann M, Gala I. Fatal pancreatitis associated with valproic acid: Review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002;81: 305–310.
- 580. Patrick KA, Jarriel JT, Hieger MA. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Due to Acute Valproic Acid Overdose. Am J Ther. 2018;25: e584–e585. pmid:29053479
- 581. Quan W, Shao Q, Zhang H, Liu F-H, Zhang X-H. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Valproate Treatment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2018;131: 1889–1890. pmid:30058594
- 582. Rose E, de Miscault G, Thome M, Boussard N. [Acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate. Review of the literature apropos of a case in a child]. Pediatrie. 1991;46: 831–837. pmid:1667040
- 583. Drory VE, Sidi I, Korczyn AD. Riluzole-induced pancreatitis. Neurology. 1999;52: 892–893. pmid:10078757
- 584. Ianiro G, Cammarota G, Milani A, Mettimano M, Gasbarrini A. Moderately severe acute pancreatitis associated with riluzole. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;48: 563.
- 585. Rodrigo L, Moreno M, Calleja S, Mateos V, Andrade RJ, Lucena MI. Riluzole-induced acute pancreatitis . Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96: 2268–2269. pmid:11467672
- 586. Bauters T, Mondelaers V, Robays H, De Wilde H, Benoit Y, De Moerloose B. Methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia after rasburicase administration in a child with leukemia. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35: 303–305. pmid:21057874
- 587. Can B, Sali M, Batman A, Yilmaz H, Korkmaz U, Celebi A, et al. Valsartan-induced acute pancreatitis. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn. 2014;53: 703–705.
- 588. Amaravadi RK, Jacobson BC, Solomon DH, Fischer MA. Acute pancreatitis associated with rofecoxib . Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97: 1077–1078. pmid:12003405
- 589. Sato K, Yamada E, Uehara Y, Takagi H, Mori M. Possible role for human leukocyte antigen haplotype in rofecoxib-associated acute pancreatitis and cholestatic hepatitis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;80: 554–555. pmid:17112814
- 590. Markov M, Patel K, Raeesy A, Bant A, Van Thiel DH, Nadir A. Liver and pancreatic injury induced by antituberculous therapy. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52: 3275–3281. pmid:17909976
- 591. Philip A, Sivaprakasam P, Sagar TG, Ganesan P. Voriconazole-induced pancreatitis in a patient of acute myeloid leukemia and invasive aspergillosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;34: 406. pmid:22713708
- 592. Slim R, Salem CB, Zamy M, Fathallah N, Raynaud JJ, Bouraoui K, et al. Secnidazole-induced acute pancreatitis: A new side-effect for an old drug? J Pancreas. 2010;11: 85–86.
- 593. Mirete G, Masia M, Gutierrez F, Mora A, Escolano C, Maestre A. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of ritonavir therapy in a patient with AIDS. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998;17: 810–811. pmid:9923528
- 594. Ratkovic M, Basic-Jukic N, Radunovic D. Possible Sirolimus-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in a Renal Transplant Recipient. Ther Apher Dial. 2016;20: 208–209. pmid:26752587
- 595. Souweine B, Fialip J, Ruivard M, Aumaitre O, Lavarenne J, Philippe P. Acute pancreatitis associated with roxithromycin therapy . DICP Ann Pharmacother. 1991;25: 1137.
- 596. Liu PH, Lee BJ, Wang CY, Hung DZ. Acute pancreatitis after severe theophylline overdose. Clin Toxicol Phila Pa. 2008;46: 1103.
- 597. Anand H, Parthasarathi G, Ramesh M. Stavudine-induced pancreatitis followed by lopinavir-ritonavir-induced pancreatitis. J Postgrad Med. 2008;54: 153–155. pmid:18480538
- 598. Cadranel JF, Grippon P, Lunel F, Victor N, Opolon P. [Ingestion of tiaprofenic acid (Surgam) associated with an outbreak of acute pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1987;11: 99–100. pmid:3556966
- 599. Oflazoglu U, Varol U, Alacacioglu A, Salman T, Demir N, Semiz HS, et al. Case report of a renal cell carcinoma patient with acute pancreatitis under both sunitinib and axitinib treatment. J Oncol Sci. 2016;2: 63–65.
- 600. Hegazi MO, Saleh F, John JE. Is it tinidazole-induced pancreatitis? J Clin Pharm Ther. 2015;40: 607–608. pmid:26174560
- 601. Knackstedt C, Winograd R, Koch A, Abuzahra F, Trautwein C, Wasmuth HE. Acute necrotic pancreatitis induced by severe hypercalcaemia due to tacalcitol ointment. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156: 576–577. pmid:17300254
- 602. Picardo S, So K, Venugopal K, Chin M. Vedolizumab-induced acute pancreatitis: the first reported clinical case. BMJ Case Rep. 2018;2018. pmid:29305366
- 603. Baffoni L, Durante V, Grossi M. Acute pancreatitis induced by telmisartan overdose . Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38: 1088.
- 604. Girgis CM, Champion BL. Vildagliptin-induced acute pancreatitis. Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol. 2011;17: e48–e50.
- 605. Flaig T, Douros A, Bronder E, Klimpel A, Kreutz R, Garbe E. Tocilizumab-induced pancreatitis: case report and review of data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016;41: 718–721. pmid:27670839
- 606. Nadir A, Nadir F, Hassanein T, Gurakar A, Wright HI, Van Thiel DH. Acute relapsing pancreatitis induced with ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1995;88: 295–298. pmid:7650564
- 607. Sevastru S, Wakatsuki M, Fennell J, Grocott MPW. Plasma exchange in the management of a case of hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis triggered by venlafaxine. BMJ Case Rep. 2012;2012. Available: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=med7&NEWS=N&AN=22892234
- 608. Mahto SK, Gupta PK, Taneja RS, Singh A. Zidovudine-induced lactic acidosis with acute pancreatitis and myopathy: Lethal and rare complications. Indian J Pharmacol. 2018;50: 212–214. pmid:30505059