Skip to main content
Browse Subject Areas

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here.

  • Loading metrics

Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners

  • Yang Shu,

    Affiliation Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

  • Qichang Mei,

    Affiliation Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

  • Justin Fernandez,

    Affiliations Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

  • Zhiyong Li,

    Affiliation School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

  • Neng Feng,

    Affiliation Rehabilitation Center, Ningbo Ninth Hospital, Ningbo, China

  • Yaodong Gu

    Affiliation Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China


Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4years, 66±7.1kg & 1.68±0.13m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8years, 55±4.7kg & 1.6±0.11m) (Indians) and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6years, 66±8.2kg & 1.72±0.18m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5years, 54±5.6kg & 1.62±0.15m)(Chinese) participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system) to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians) for foot length (female p = 0.001), width (female p = 0.001), hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001) and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001) from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes.


Barefoot running has received increasing attention in recent years. From the perspective of evolutionary theories, long-distance running ability was crucial for human survival [1,2]. Several previous studies were conducted to investigate the difference between habitually barefoot runners and shod runners (with shoes) concerning different foot-strike patterns with foot strike angle or strike index analysis [24], kinetics of running, walking and jumping for injury risks evaluation [57], and muscle activity characters of the lower limb [8]. However, biomechanical analysis of barefoot or shod running has not led to agreement on which running style is more injury-preventive or running-economic. Barefoot running was popularized with enhancement of proprioceptive motor-regulation function and muscle strength, especially medial gastrocnemius (MG) of barefoot runners for ankle plantar-flexion [9,10] and thus help prevent repetitive stress injuries, like tibial stress fracture and patellofemoral pain syndrome [11]. In contrast, running with shoes was believed to reduce the loading rate and plantar pressure to the lower extremity and foot, especially the athletic footwear equipped with cushioning system [12], with propagated ‘minimalist’ shoes showing non-convincing effect of perceptible barefoot feeling, lowering injury risk or increasing running economy [6,1316]. Reasons might be that there exists different running styles or techniques (with the forefoot striking pattern) rather than simple barefoot running (without shoes) [17,18]. Also, footwear has been shown to influence foot morphology as measurement of different foot structure [1922], particularly incorrectly fitted shoes, the feet binding of Chinese women [23] and hallux valgus of women owing to long-term wearing of high-heeled shoes [24]. Even wearing normal shoes from a young age may influence the shape of feet compared with habitually barefoot populations. It has been shown that there are a multitude of differences in foot type, foot pressure or loading and foot morphological characteristics among people of different genders, ages and ethnicities [2530].

Different morphological foot characteristics are associated with different functions. The normal foot with 26 bones and associated muscles ensures the foot’s static and dynamic functions and contributes to the overall features of the foot [26], but the shape and morphology differs from individuals [31,32]. Knowing exactly the functions of different feet morphology not only plays a crucial role in preventing injuries [33,34], but also informs sport performance [35,36]. Highly competitive and recreational athletes are at risk of incurring a wide range of injuries, typically hyperkeratotic lesions like corns and calluses [37], or stress induced injuries [38,39]. One widely accepted explanation was that the lack of protection provided by sports shoes [33] or ill-fitted shoes [40,41] leads to injuries and reduced performance [42]. Different foot morphology has become a focus in order to reduce injury when designing shoes [43]. When it comes to anthropometry of human feet, indexes like length, width and girth or circumference of specific feet regions have been collected and utilized in footwear design since the introduction of traditional anthropometric methods [44]. Studies have been conducted to confirm the reliability and reproducibility of foot type or morphology measurement systems compared with traditional methods both under static and dynamic conditions [21,4447].

The reported morphological difference between habitually unshod and shod populations were that unshod feet are wider than shod feet [48] and shod walkers have slender feet (short and narrow) compared with unshod walkers. Compared with habitually shod feet, the big toes of habitually unshod feet are quite separate from the other four toes, which was believed to be the toes’ prehensile function like fingers [30]. Quantified indices have not been used to illustrate the toes morphological difference between habitually shod and habitually unshod feet. The hallux angle (HA) is the angle created by the deviation of the hallux (Line B-C & B’-C’) away from the tangential line, which connects the medial heel with the medial forefoot (Line A-B & A’-B’) [35]. In this study, the primary objective was to quantify the hallux angle, minimal distance between hallux and the interphalangeal of the second toe (D), foot length and foot width between habitually unshod and habitually shod runners of different ethnicities. The minimal distance between the hallux (big toe) and the interphalangeal joint of the second toe is depicted based on what was collected for this study. Feet deformities, like hallux valgus, were excluded for its influence on the hallux angle owing to the long-term wearing of ill-fitted shoes [48]. The hallux angle and minimal distance between hallux and toes may provide additional indices to quantify differences between shod and unshod feet. The secondary objective was to evaluate any association between the hallux angle and minimal distance of habitually unshod and shod feet to identify any morphological trends.

Materials and Methods

Ethics statement

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ningbo University. Before the test experiments, the subjects were informed of requirements and procedures of the scanning test. All gave informed written consent to participate in the study.


A total of 364 participants, including 168 habitually unshod runners (Indians) and 196 shod runners (Chinese) volunteered to take the foot scan test. The Indian unshod runners were chosen from over one thousand International students in Ningbo University while conducting physical examinations; and the Chinese shod runners were native undergraduate students of Ningbo University. All participants had a history of running outdoors or on treadmills and kept participating in physical activities at least three times a week for an hour each time. The Indian unshod runners originated from South India, who were barefoot running or taking part to physical activities since born and wore slippers or flip-flops in daily life. The Chinese shod runners wore shoes since born and kept wearing different kinds of shoes in daily life. Participants who presented hallux valgus, high-arched foot, flat foot, diabetic foot or any other foot deformities were excluded by physical examiners while participating physical examinations before the scanning test. All participants had no injuries or surgeries to their lower limbs in the past half year. Their basic demographics are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. The basic demographics of habitually unshod and shod runners.

Methods and equipment

The Easy-Foot-Scan (EFS), OrthoBaltic (Kaunas, Lithuania) was utilized to process and acquire the 3D foot surface data and 2D foot print image simultaneously. The scan speed, scan sensitivity, resolution, smoothing and hole filling of EFS in the measuring interface were set at fast, normal, 1.0mm, 30mm and 100mm, respectively. To accurately obtain the 3D data and 2D image, the procedure strictly followed the international standard, ISO (International Standards Organization)-20685 and 7250 [49]. As noted by Telfer and Woodburn [49], these standards have ‘been produced with the aim of ensuring that measurements taken using 3D scanning systems are comparable with those taken using traditional methods and can be used in anthropometric databases.’ These standards ‘require that the maximum mean difference between the traditional and 3D scanning derived values is 2 mm.’ The EFS system in this scanning test is equipped with a high precision of 0.3 mm. For the calculation of hallux angle, three landmarks were previously hand-drawn to the medial calcaneous (A & A’), the head of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (B & B’) and the hallux (C & C’) for each participant (S2 Fig). Two lines (line A-B & A’-B’ & line B-C & B’-C’) were used to calculate the hallux angle (HA and HA’) in Auto CAD (Computer Aided Design, 2007) and the minimal distance (D and D’) between the hallux and interphalangeal joint of the second toe computed from the 2D foot print image (Figs 1 and 2).

Fig 1. 2D foot print image of habitually shod (left) and unshod (right) runners.

Fig 2. The dorsal view of foot surface data, length (length’), width (width’), minimal distance (distance’) and HA (hallux angle, HA’).

Three landmarks were drawn to connect line A-B (A’-B’) and line B-C (B’-C’), with A (A’) in medial calcaneous, B (B’) in the head of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and C (C’) in the hallux.

Participants were asked to stand still with their right foot in the middle of the glass plate (scanning area) and left foot on the supporting plate outside the scanning area (S1 Fig). The distance between the two feet is the width of their shoulders so that the participants’ body weight can be evenly distributed to both feet (S1 Fig). The BMI (body mass index) is defined as the body weight (kg) divided by squared body height (m2). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines BMI values between 18.5 and 24.9 as normal; values below 18.5 as underweight and values over 30 as obese [50]. The BMI of participants was in the normal range between 18.50 and 24.99 kg/m2 [51], seen in Table 1. As the BMI of all participants were in the normal range, the foot shape changes for different body weight or load-bearing conditions and different stature can be disregarded under the condition of bearing their own body weight [5154].

Data acquisition and statistical analysis

To abide by the ISO 20685 and 7250 standards, the 3D surface data collected in the test was limited to measuring results of foot length and width, excluding ball perimeter, waist girth perimeter, instep heel perimeter, short heel perimeter, ankle circumference perimeter and skin circumference perimeter. The hallux angle (Figs 1 and 2) is the angle created by the deviation of the hallux away from the tangential line which connects the medial heel with the medial forefoot [35]. The 2D foot print images (Figs 1 and 2) were collected to calculate hallux angle (HA&HA’) value and the minimal distance (D&D’) between hallux and the second toe with Auto CAD 2007 (Autodesk, America).

All statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was taken to analyze the significance of length and width difference between habitually unshod (Indian) and shod (Chinese) feet. The LSD (least significance difference) in ANOVA was conducted to analyze the significance of hallux angle and difference between habitually unshod and shod feet. The significant p-value was set at 0.05.


The length, width, hallux angle and minimal distance between hallux and the interphalangeal joint of the second toes of habitually unshod (Indian) feet and habitually shod (Chinese) feet were collected and analyzed to quantitatively show foot morphological characteristics. The individual level foot morphology data collected is shown in the S1 Table.

Length and width of unshod feet and shod feet

As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the length and width of habitually unshod feet and habitually shod feet are divided into different feet length and width sample distributions. The age, weight and height or BMI of all participants in the test are presented in Table 1. They are classed in similar age and BMI group.

Table 2. The length sample distribution of unshod feet and shod feet.

Table 3. The width sample distribution of unshod feet and shod feet.

For foot length, the unshod feet are in a relatively focused range, with 60% male in the 250–260mm group and 46.2% and 30.8% female in the 230–240mm and 240–250mm groups, respectively. In contrast, the shod male feet are in a distributed range, with similar percentages in 240–250mm (21.5%), 250–260mm (30.8%), 260–270mm (21.5%) and above 270mm (20%) groups. The shod female feet are more fixed in a smaller range than unshod female feet, with 54.5% in the 230–240mm group.

Concerning foot width, the unshod feet show a concentrated range, with 53.3% male unshod feet in the 100–110mm group and 23.1% and 38.5% female unshod feet in 100–110mm and 110–120mm groups, separately. However, shod feet show a dispersed range, with 38.5% and 29.2% male shod feet in 100–110mm and 110–120mm groups and 39.4% and 27.2% female shod feet in 90–100mm and 100–110mm groups.

One-way ANOVA of length and width of unshod and shod feet

The one-way ANOVA of foot length and width of unshod and shod feet (Table 4) shows that there is a statistically significant difference in the length and width between females with unshod and shod feet with p = 0.001(<0.01). However, the difference in length and width between males with unshod and shod feet was not significant.

Table 4. The one-way ANOVA of length and width of unshod and shod feet (mm).

The LSD-ANOVA of HA (HA’) and D (D’)

The least significant difference ANOVA (LSD-ANOVA) analysis of hallux angle and minimal distance (Table 5) shows there is a statistically significant difference between hallux angle HA and HA’ for both male and female runners (p = 0.001); and there is also a statistically significant difference between D and D’ for both male and female runners (p = 0.001). The hallux angle (HA & HA’) of male and female habitually shod and unshod feet was 8.88° (5.17°) and 3.86° (3.49°), with p = 0.001 (<0.01); F = 64.514; and 13.21° (4.89°) and 2.91° (3.45°), with p = 0.001 (<0.01); F = 218.351, respectively. The minimal distance (D & D’) between the hallux and interphalangeal joint of the second toe of male and female habitually shod feet and unshod feet was 6.28mm (6.64mm) and 23.73mm (13.19mm), with p = 0.001 (<0.01); F = 166.995; and 5.39mm (3.91mm) and 19.38mm (10.25mm), with p = 0.01; F = 109.312, respectively. Combining the hallux angle (HA & HA’) with the minimal distance (D & D’), the hallux angle of habitually shod male and female feet are larger than the HA’ of habitually unshod male and female feet. In contrast, the minimal distance (D) of habitually shod male and female feet are smaller than the distance D’ of habitually unshod male and female feet.

Table 5. The LSD ANOVA of hallux angle (deg) and distance between unshod and shod feet (mm).

To illustrate the difference between habitually shod and unshod feet, the hallux angle and minimal distance were analyzed together for both females and males. The mean (SD) value of the hallux angle was HA = 10.3±5.4 and HA’ = 3.42±3.5 (Fig 3A), and the mean (SD) value of the minimal distance was D = 5.98±5.8 and D’ = 21.71±12.1 (Fig 3B). There was a trend observed with the larger the hallux angle the smaller the minimal distance (Fig 3C). However, when quantifying the correlation between hallux angle and minimal distance the fitted values for habitually shod feet (green line) and habitually unshod feet (blue line) were poorly correlated, with R2 = 0.057 for habitually shod feet and R2 = 0.182 for habitually unshod feet.

Fig 3. A-The mean value of Hallux Angle (HA = 10.3±5.4 & HA’ = 3.42±3.5) (Fig 3-A), B-minimal Distance (D = 5.98±5.8 & D’ = 21.71±12.1) (Fig 3-B) and C-the correlation between the hallux angle value and the minimal distance with habitually shod feet (R2 = 0.057) and unshod feet (R2 = 0.182) (Fig 3-C).


Studies concerning foot morphology have been researched ever since the early 20th century [22]. Reasons for morphological differences were attributed to different ethnicities [25,26,28,30], different genders or ages [55], pathological factors [56] and different forms of sport participation [33,35]. In this study, female and male runners of similar age, height and weight or BMI group from China (habitually shod populations) and India (habitually unshod populations) were recruited to illustrate foot morphological characteristics on account of daily footwear wearing and ethnicity influence.

The length of female unshod feet (mean±SD = 240.2±9.3) was significantly larger than that (235.4±7.1) of female shod feet, with p = 0.001, F = 12.003, which was consistent with the length and width (body height) of habitually barefoot Indians who are larger than habitually shod Indians and westerners [25]. However, this was not observed with the male participants in this study, where the difference of length and width was not significant. The explanation for the difference of foot length and width between female participants in this study may be that shod females are more vulnerable to foot deformations, like hallux valgus, owing to wearing high-heeled shoes or sharp-headed shoes [24,48,57]. Long-term wearing of ill-fitted shoes restricted natural foot growth and movement under weight-bearing-conditions [48]. This was observed in extreme cases like the broken longitudinal arch and deformed toes of bound feet in ancient China [23].

The fact that the wearing of poorly-fitted shoes among male participants was seldom may explain the non-significant difference of length and width between habitually shod and unshod feet compared with females [24,57]. A further reason may be attributed to geographic or ethnic influence [2830,35,55] including wearing slippers or flip-flops [48], sharp-headed shoes [24] or even barefoot. A limitation of the current work which needs to be considered when interpreting the results is that the low overall body height of participants is likely due to different ethnicities. This limits the generalizability to other populations. Studies following on from the current work should consider factors including height (stature), age and BMI are normalized to generalize results to other populations [48,51,54].

The hallux angle and sub-arch index have been proposed to analyze different foot types in previous studies [31,32]. These indices had clearly differentiated hallux angle among different ethnicities (Caucasian, Maori and Pacific Island athletes) [35] and different sub-arch index values of flat foot or high-arched foot [31]. Another useful quantitative index proposed in this study was the minimal distance between hallux and the interphalangeal joint of the second toe. Habitually unshod runners had significantly smaller hallux angle (HA’) and larger minimal distance (D’) than those (HA and D) of habitually shod runners. One feasible explanation for the hallux angle and minimal distance difference between unshod and shod feet was that long-term ill-fitted or sharp-headed shoe wearing adapted the toes shape to a shoe environment (claw-shaped toes) in contrast to their barefoot separate and prehensile function [29,30,48,58]. Moreover, previous studies had pointed out that the separate hallux might work like fingers with prehensile and ambulatory functions [58]. In combination with the difference of HA (HA’) and D (D’), there exists a trend between the hallux angle and the minimal distance in habitually unshod and habitually shod runners, that is, the bigger the HA the smaller the D and the smaller the HA’ the bigger the D’, but these were poorly correlated (R2 = 0.057 and R2 = 0.182, respectively). The 1.5-million-year-old Hominin footprint revealed morphological characteristics of abducted hallux with hallux abduction angle relative to the foot long axis, showing a difference between abducted hallux and the adducted hallux of modern shoe-wearing feet [29]. The hallux abduction angle is similar to the hallux angle in this study. Another limitation of the study was that the arch index wasn’t calculated to quantitatively investigate whether the arch type influenced the hallux angle and minimal distance though previous study had reported it affected foot length and width and this study had exclude participants with flat or high arch [25].

An application where morphological characteristics of habitually unshod (Indians) feet and habitually shod (Chinese) feet may be useful is informing footwear design, especially for sport in these two large ethnic populations. From vocational athletes aiming to improve sport performance to recreational runners aiming to maintain physical form, running barefoot is an option, especially for habitually shod runners [11,59] and may provide benefits in effective training [8], performance [2], injury prevention [12], and running-economic [60]. Foot measurements are widely accessible due to increased availability and development of foot sensing technology. The morphological characteristics of foot under different conditions, from non-weight bearing, semi to whole body-weight bearing conditions [52,53], different age, gender or specific foot regions [55,61,62] and different ethnicities [28,30,55] have been previously researched. This study shows that measuring hallux angle and distance between hallux and toes is a suitable index to differentiate shod and unshod feet in both males and females.


Feet morphological characteristics of habitually unshod (Indian) runners and habitually shod (Chinese) runners were analyzed with quantitative indices of feet length and width, the relation in hallux angle and the minimal distance between hallux and the second toe. Quantitative difference exists in terms of female foot length and width. The hallux angle value was greatly correlated with minimal distance from hallux to second toe. One reason for the difference is ethnicity (Chinese and Indian), after accounting for the influence of height, BMI, age and gender. Another reason is that long-term ill-fitted footwear since youth invisibly deformed foot from natural develop. A principal application of this information is informing the design of footwear in the sports industry while considering people from different ethnicities, so as to reduce injuries and improve sports performance. Future study of locomotion biomechanics shall consider the foot morphological characteristics.

Supporting Information

S1 Fig. The participants’ position while foot scanning test


S2 Fig. Landmarks for the calculation of Hallux Angle


S1 Table. The participant-level feet morphology data and other relevant information(gender and habitually shod or unshod feet)


Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YS QM JF ZL NF YG. Performed the experiments: YS QM NF YG. Analyzed the data: YS QM ZL YG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YS QM JF ZL NF YG. Wrote the paper: YS QM JF ZL NF YG.


  1. 1. Lieberman D. (2013) The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
  2. 2. Tam N, Wilson JLA, Noakes TD, Tucker R. (2014) Barefoot running: an evaluation of current hypothesis future research and clinical applications. Br J Sports Med 48: 349–355. pmid:24108403
  3. 3. Lieberman DE, Venkadesan M, Werbel WA, Daoud AI, D’Andrea S, Davis IS, et al. (2010) Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature 463: 531–535. pmid:20111000
  4. 4. Altman AR, Davis IS. (2012) A kinematic method for footstrike pattern detection in barefoot and shod runners. Gait Posture 35: 298–300. pmid:22075193
  5. 5. Yeow CH, Lee PV, Goh JC. (2011) Shod landing provides enhanced energy dissipation at the knee joint relative to barefoot landing from different heights. Knee 18: 407–411. pmid:20797866
  6. 6. Sinclair J, Greenhalgh A, Brooks D, Edmundson CJ, Hobbs SJ. (2013) The influence of barefoot and barefoot-inspired footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in comparison to conventional running shoes. Footwear Science 5: 45–53.
  7. 7. Lohman EB, Balan Sackiriyas KS, Swen RW. (2011) A comparison of the spatiotemporal parameters, kinematics, and biomechanics between shod, unshod, and minimally supported running as compared to walking. Phys Ther Sport 12: 151–163. pmid:22085708
  8. 8. Ahn AN, Brayton C, Bhatia T, Martin P. (2014) Muscle activity and kinematics of forefoot and rearfoot strike runners. Journal of Sport and Health Science 3: 102–112.
  9. 9. Olin ED, Gutierrez GM. (2013) EMG and tibial shock upon the first attempt at barefoot running. Hum Mov Sci 32: 343–352. pmid:23643493
  10. 10. Cronin NJ, Finni T. (2013) Treadmill versus overground and barefoot versus shod comparisons of triceps surae fascicle behaviour in human walking and running. Gait and Posture 38: 528–533. pmid:23473808
  11. 11. Lieberman DE. (2012) What We Can Learn About Running from Barefoot Running: An Evolutionary Medical Perspective. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 40: 63–72. pmid:22257937
  12. 12. Fong YA, Sinclair PJ, Hiller C, Wegener C, Smith RM. (2013) Impact attenuation during weight bearing activities in barefoot vs. shod conditions: a systematic review. Gait and Posture 38: 175–186. pmid:23245643
  13. 13. Shih Y, Lin KL, Shiang TY. (2013) Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running? Gait and Posture 38: 490–494. pmid:23507028
  14. 14. Squadrone R, Gallozzi C. (2009) Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experienced barefoot runners. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 49: 6–13. pmid:19188889
  15. 15. Willson JD, Bjorhus JS, Williams DS, Butler RJ, Porcari JP, Kernozek TW. (2014) Short-term changes in running mechanics and foot strike pattern after introduction to minimalistic footwear. PM R 6: 34–43; quiz 43. pmid:23999160
  16. 16. Bonacci J, Saunders PU, Hicks A, Rantalainen T, Vicenzino BG, Spratford W. (2013) Running in a minimalist and lightweight shoe is not the same as running barefoot: a biomechanical study. Br J Sports Med 47: 387–392. pmid:23314887
  17. 17. Hall JP, Barton C, Jones PR, Morrissey D. (2013) The biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod distance running: a systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis. Sports Med 43: 1335–1353. pmid:23996137
  18. 18. Cheung RT, Rainbow MJ. (2014) Landing pattern and vertical loading rates during first attempt of barefoot running in habitual shod runners. Hum Mov Sci 34: 120–127. pmid:24556474
  19. 19. Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Mootanah R, Dufour AB, et al. (2013) Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait and Posture 37: 445–451. pmid:23107625
  20. 20. Mootanah R, Song J, Lenhoff MW, Hafer JF, Backus SI, Gagnon D, et al. (2013) Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function? Gait Posture 37: 452–456. pmid:23107624
  21. 21. Zhao J, Xiong S, Bu Y, Goonetilleke RS. (2008) Computerized girth determination for custom footwear manufacture. Computers & Industrial Engineering 54: 359–373.
  22. 22. Hoffmann P. (1905) Conclusions drawn from a comparative study of the feet of barefooted and shoe-wearing peoples. The American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 3: 105–136.
  23. 23. Ma J, Song Y, Rong M, Gu Y. (2013) Bound foot metatarsals skeletal rays kinematics information through inverse modelling. Int J Biomedical Engineering and Technology 13: 147–153.
  24. 24. Gu Y, Li F, Li J, Feng N, Lake MJ, Li ZY, et al. (2014) Plantar pressure distribution character in young female with mild hallux valgus wearing high-heeled shoes. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology 14.
  25. 25. D'Août K, Pataky TC, De Clercq D, Aerts P. (2009) The effects of habitual footwear use: foot shape and function in native barefoot walkers. Footwear Science 1: 81–94.
  26. 26. Mauch M, Grau S, Krauss I, Maiwald C, Horstmann T. (2009) A new approach to children's footwear based on foot type classification. Ergonomics 52: 999–1008. pmid:19629814
  27. 27. Putti AB, Arnold GP, Abboud RJ. (2010) Differences in foot pressures between Caucasians and Indians. Foot Ankle Surg 16: 195–198. pmid:21047609
  28. 28. Gurney JK, Kuch C, Rosenbaum D, Kersting UG. (2012) The Maori foot exhibits differences in plantar loading and midfoot morphology to the Caucasian foot. Gait Posture 36: 157–159. pmid:22364845
  29. 29. Bennett MR, Harris JWK, Richmond BG. (2009) Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5-million-year-old footprints from Ileret, Kenya. Science 323: 1197–1201. pmid:19251625
  30. 30. Ashizawa K, Kumakura C, Kusumoto A, Narasaki S. (1997) Relative foot size and shape to general body size in Javanese, Filipinas and Japanese with special reference to habitual footwear types. Annals of human biology 24: 117–129. pmid:9074748
  31. 31. Wong CK, Weil R, De Boer E. (2012) Standardizing foot-type classification using arch index values. Physiother Can 64: 280–283. pmid:23729964
  32. 32. Razeghi M, Batt ME. (2002) Foot type classification: a critical review of current methods. Gait and Posture 15: 282–291. pmid:11983503
  33. 33. Cain LE, Nicholson LL, Adams RD, Burns J. (2007) Foot morphology and foot/ankle injury in indoor football. J Sci Med Sport 10: 311–319. pmid:16949867
  34. 34. Freedman BR, Sarver JJ, Buckley MR, Voleti PB, Soslowsky LJ. (2014) Biomechanical and structural response of healing Achilles tendon to fatigue loading following acute injury. J Biomech 47: 2028–2034. pmid:24280564
  35. 35. Gurney JK, Kersting UG, Rosenbaum D. (2009) Dynamic foot function and morphology in elite rugby league athletes of different ethnicity. Appl Ergon 40: 554–559. pmid:19100961
  36. 36. Mei Q, Graham M, Gu Y. (2014) Biomechanical analysis of the plantar and upper pressure with different sports shoes. Int J Biomedical Engineering and Technology 14: 181–191.
  37. 37. Grouios G. (2004) Corns and calluses in athletes’ feet: a cause for concern. The Foot 14: 175–184.
  38. 38. Hamill J, van Emmerik REA, Heiderscheit BC, Li L. (1999) A dynamical systems approach to lower extremity running injuries. Clinical Biomechanics 14: 297–308. pmid:10521606
  39. 39. Moore IS, Jones A, Dixon S. (2014) The pursuit of improved running performance: Can changes in cushioning and somatosensory feedback influence running economy and injury risk? Footwear Science 6: 1–11.
  40. 40. Aydog ST, Tetik O, Demirel HA, Doral MN. (2005) Differences in sole arch indices in various sports. Br J Sports Med 39: e5. pmid:15665190
  41. 41. Lin SC, Chen CP, Tang SF, Wong AM, Hsieh JH, Chen WP. (2013) Changes in windlass effect in response to different shoe and insole designs during walking. Gait and Posture 37: 235–241. pmid:22884544
  42. 42. Clifton P, Burton M, Subic A, Perret-Ellena T, Bedford A, Schembri A. (2011) Identification of performance requirements for user-centered design of running shoes. Procedia Engineering 13: 100–106.
  43. 43. Cheng FT, Perng DB. (1999) A systematic approach for developing a foot size information system for shoe last design. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 25: 171–185.
  44. 44. Witana CP, Xiong S, Zhao J, Goonetilleke RS. (2006) Foot measurements from three-dimensional scans: A comparison and evaluation of different methods. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 36: 789–807.
  45. 45. Mall NA, Hardaker WM, Nunley JA, Queen RM. (2007) The reliability and reproducibility of foot type measurements using a mirrored foot photo box and digital photography compared to caliper measurements. J Biomech 40: 1171–1176. pmid:16824532
  46. 46. Novak B, Mozina J, Jezersek M. (2014) 3D laser measurements of bare and shod feet during walking. Gait and Posture 40: 87–93. pmid:24661899
  47. 47. Liu X, Kim W, Drerup B. (2004) 3D characterization and localization of anatomical landmarks of the foot by FastSCAN. Real-Time Imaging 10: 217–228.
  48. 48. Kadambande S, Khurana A, Debnath U, Bansal M, Hariharan K. (2006) Comparative anthropometric analysis of shod and unshod feet. The Foot 16: 188–191.
  49. 49. Telfer S, Woodburn J. (2010) The use of 3D surface scanning for the measurement and assessment of the human foot. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 3.
  50. 50. WHO (World Health Organization) (1997) Obesity: Preventing And Managing The Global Epidemic (Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity). Genevra: WHO.
  51. 51. Aurichio TR, Rebelatto JR, de Castro AP. (2011) The relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and foot posture in elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 52: e89–e92. pmid:20678817
  52. 52. Xiong SP, Goonetilleke RS, Zhao JH, Li WY, Witana CP. (2009) Foot deformations under different load-bearing conditions and their relationships to stature and body weight. Anthropological Science 117: 77–88.
  53. 53. Tsung BYS, Zhang M, Fan YB, Boone DA. (2003) Quantitative comparison of plantar foot shapes under different weight-bearing conditions. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 40: 517–526. pmid:15077664
  54. 54. Dingwall HL, Hatala KG, Wunderlich RE, Richmonda BG. (2013) Hominin stature, body mass, and walking speed estimates based on 1.5 million-year-old fossil footprints at Ileret, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 64: 556–568. pmid:23522822
  55. 55. Stavlas P, Grivas TB, Michas C, Vasiliadis E, Polyzois V. (2005) The evolution of foot morphology in children between 6 and 17 years of age: a cross-sectional study based on footprints in a Mediterranean population. J Foot Ankle Surg 44: 424–428. pmid:16257670
  56. 56. Guiotto A, Sawacha Z, Guarneri G, Cristoferi G, Avogaro A, Cobelli C. (2013) The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy. Gait Posture 37: 603–610. pmid:23159679
  57. 57. Li FL, Zhang Y, Gu YD, Li JS. (2014) Lower extremity mechanics of jogging in different experienced high-heeled shoe wearers. Int J Biomedical Engineering and Technology 15: 59–68.
  58. 58. Lambrinudi C. (1932) Use and abuse of toes. Postgrad Med J 8: 459–464. pmid:21312774
  59. 59. Schutte KH, Miles KC, Venter RE, Van NSM. (2013) Barefoot running casues acute changes in lower limb kinematics in habitually shod male runners. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 35: 153–164.
  60. 60. Squadrone R, Gallozzi C. (2009) Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experinced barefoot runners. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 49: 6–13. pmid:19188889
  61. 61. Houston VL, Luo GM, Mason CP, Mussman M, Garbarini M, Beattie AC. (2006) Changes in male foot shape and size with weightbearing. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 96: 330–343. pmid:16868327
  62. 62. Bosch K, Gerss J, Rosenbaum D. (2010) Development of healthy children's feet-nine-year results of a longitudinal investigation of plantar loading patterns. Gait and Posture 32: 564–571. pmid:20832317