Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity.
Citation: Reimer JJ, Vargas R, Rivas D, Gaxiola-Castro G, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Lara-Lara R (2015) Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0125177. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125177
Academic Editor: Moncho Gomez-Gesteira, University of Vigo, SPAIN
Received: April 20, 2014; Accepted: March 21, 2015; Published: April 29, 2015
Copyright: © 2015 Reimer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Data Availability: All data are available from websites cited in the text. All MOD15 and MOD17 data are available from http://daac.ornl.gov/MODIS/. All sea surface temperature data are available from http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=ocean_month. All Multivariate ENSO index data are available from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/enso/mei/table.html.
Funding: The Mexican Carbon Program (Programa Mexicano del Carbono) provided a Postdoctoral scholarship to JJR for the elaboration of this work. JJR also thanks the University of Delaware for fostering a Visiting Scholar position which allowed for collaborations with RV in the early stages of this project. DR has been funded by Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada’s (CICESE) budget through the internal project number 625118, and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) project CB-2009-128940-F. GGC and RLL have also been funded through CICESE’s internal projects and CONACYT project CB 2009/129140. This work is part of the North American Carbon Program, and RV acknowledges support from NASA under Carbon Monitoring System (NNX13AQ06G) and USDA (2014-67003-22070). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Many land and ocean processes are linked through connections in the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric events such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 2 to 7 year cycles), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; decadal cycles) are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle [1,2]. ENSO and PDO are the predominant atmospheric phenomena which impact both marine and terrestrial ecosystems along the Pacific coast of North America . For example, the net ecosystem production in Douglas-fir and conifer forests along the Pacific coast increases (or decreases) due to strong ENSO leading modes and air temperature anomalies [4,5]. Therefore, evidence suggests that connective processes influence regional-scale gross primary production (GPP) in coastal ecosystems. It is unknown, however, how smaller scale processes, including those of marine origin (e.g., local upwelling events) could influence local-to-regional variability of GPP.
In arid coastal climates along eastern boundary currents (such as the Baja California Peninsula and the coastal regions of Chile and Peru) water vapor of marine origin provides moisture for local vegetation as well as intensifies the warming of the coastal landmass creating a positive feedback [6,7]. Terrestrial warming could promote an ocean-land thermal contrast and greater ocean-land atmospheric pressure gradients which, in turn, could influence upwelling-favorable winds. Furthermore, atmospheric relative humidity positively influences GPP and soil CO2 efflux variability in coastal environments across semi-arid regions [8–10]. It is well known that sea surface temperature (SST) has an effect on the regional atmospheric relative humidity: as cold water comes to the surface, water vapor forms because the air is dry or because cooler air is trapped below a warmer air mass thus forming water vapor (i.e., fog); known as the “marine layer” . Another way in which water vapor content increases over the surface ocean is via evaporation when the air is warmer than the SST . Over the last several decades, long-term intensification of upwelling due to intensification of offshore winds has been observed in the major upwelling systems off Peru and the Californias due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere heat exchange [13,14]. Synoptic-scale (basin-wide and greater) model simulations of upwelling, however, predict a contemporary weakening of global upwelling , while small scale models (in the spatial domain: tens to hundreds of kilometers) have shown intensification due to wind when applied to the California Current System . Therefore, it is important to determine how the future of coastal upwelling regions will be affected by climate variability driven by wind , and by extension how these regions will affect their adjacent coastal land masses; specifically the ecophysiological responses of arid ecosystems.
In the coastal zone of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico the El Niño phase of ENSO presents as increased SST, surface ocean stratification (relaxation of upwelling; ), and precipitation , as well as decreased wind velocities [20–22]. The reduction in upwelling and increased stratification (due to decreased wind velocity) also leads to declined marine gross primary production . The Baja California Peninsula is characterized by various semiarid climate regimes including Mediterranean (northwest), desert (central), and subtropical (extreme south), with vegetation in all regions adapted to drought conditions (La Niña phase). This type of vegetation may rapidly grow during wet conditions (El Niño phase) . The patterns of GPP and the relationships to changes in SST (i.e., localized ocean-land connection and teleconnections) across gradients of vegetation types and climates along the Baja California Peninsula are presently unclear. Therefore, the Baja California Peninsula and the southern California Current boundary present an excellent case-study to test for ocean-land connections across semi-arid climates and vegetation types.
The objectives of this study are: a) to determine if there is an ocean-land connection between SST and GPP, and ENSO and GPP along the latitudinal gradient of the Baja California Peninsula; and b) determine which processes, SST (representing local-scale processes) or ENSO, (representing synoptic-scale processes) has higher influence on GPP variability. It should be pointed out that herein we distinguish differences between teleconnection (synoptic-scale) and ocean-land connection (scale of up to ~70 km; offshore region to the terrestrial site farthest from the coast representing local-scale processes). For example, teleconnective processes between Pacific Ocean evaporation and continental (North America) precipitation/transpiration are known to occur [25,26]. Therefore, on smaller spatio-temporal scales, we hypothesize that coastal SST influences GPP along (north/south) and across (west to east) the Baja California Peninsula as these terrestrial arid ecosystems could be influenced by water vapor input from the ocean [5,8–10] since coastal upwelling is driven by meso-scale [17,27] and synoptic-scale atmospheric pressure gradients . We expect that GPP in coastal ecosystems will be coupled at short time-scales (i.e., weeks to months) with changes in SST, and a lower variability of GPP may be explained by synoptic-scale atmospheric forcing such as ENSO. Since the Baja California Peninsula is over 1,200 km long, we are able to examine local scale ocean-land connection and interannual variability across a climate/vegetation gradient to test their responses to similar connective and teleconnective forcing.
The Baja California Peninsula is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west and by the Gulf of California to the east. The California Current (CC), a cold eastern boundary current located off the coast of the Californias (distance varies by season; ) on top of a colder, more dense, nutrient-rich deep water mass which is upwelled to the surface when strong, persistent winds prevail from the north-northwest. The cold, nutrient-rich upwelled waters fuel the high levels of ocean productivity along the peninsula  and are known to intensify fog development  that could influence GPP . The “upwelling season” (when upwelling is strongest and most persistent) is typically from March through August, though upwelling does occur year round. Upwelling along Baja California is strongest off the capes and points  and is the primary selection criterion for the regions we examine herein. F