Results from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning cardiac and renal effect of remote ischemic preconditioning(RIPC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease(CAD) are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore whether RIPC reduce cardiac and renal events after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods and Results
RCTs with data on cardiac or renal effect of RIPC in PCI were searched from Pubmed, EMBase, and Cochrane library (up to July 2014). Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were performed to identify the potential sources of significant heterogeneity(I2≥40%). Eleven RCTs enrolling a total of 1713 study subjects with stable CAD were selected. Compared with controls, RIPC significantly reduced perioperative incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) [odds ratio(OR) = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.91; P = 0.01; I2 = 41.0%] and contrast-induced acute kidney injury(AKI) (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.98; P = 0.04; I2 = 39.0%). Meta-regression and subgroup analyses confirmed that the major source of heterogeneity for the incidence of MI was male proportion (coefficient = −0.049; P = 0.047; adjusted R2 = 0.988; P = 0.02 for subgroup difference).
The present meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that RIPC may offer cardiorenal protection by reducing the incidence of MI and AKI in patients undergoing elective PCI. Moreover, this effect on MI is more pronounced in male subjects. Future high-quality, large-scale clinical trials should focus on the long-term clinical effect of RIPC.
Citation: Pei H, Wu Y, Wei Y, Yang Y, Teng S, Zhang H (2014) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Perioperative Cardiac and Renal Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of 11 Randomized Trials. PLoS ONE 9(12): e115500. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115500
Editor: Weili Zhang, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China
Received: July 16, 2014; Accepted: October 27, 2014; Published: December 31, 2014
Copyright: © 2014 Pei et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: This research was supported by the Capital Medical Development Foundation (2009-1007). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Procedure-related myocardial infarction(MI) ,  and contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI) ,  following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are two major complications in patients with stable coronary artery disease(CAD), and have been recognized as two important predictors of long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The potential contributing mechanisms for these two phenomena include coronary microembolization, side branch occlusion, and reduced blood flow of the renal medulla , . Although several drugs have been clinically used to increase cardiac and/or renal tolerance to the ischemic injury(such as statins  and N-acetylcysteine ), any single method may face challenge for the increasing aging and/or diabetic population. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are required to provide benefits in patients undergoing PCI.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an emerging approach whereby intermittent ischemic stimulus at an organ (mostly a limb) increases ischemic tolerance of a distant one to the subsequent ischemic insult. Accumulating evidence from various animal studies has supported the systemic protective potential offered by RIPC including heart and kidney , . In humans, RIPC has also been shown to prevent reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction . Based on these findings, growing interest in the translational potential of RIPC exists in the cardiovascular clinical practice .
Recently, randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning cardiac – and/or renal , , – effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in patients with stable CAD are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether RIPC (compared with control) reduce cardiac and renal events after elective PCI.
Materials and methods
This meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement . A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBase, and Cochrane Library (up to July 2014), and scientific sessions (2010∼2013) of American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology(ACC), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) using keywords “remote ischemic preconditioning”,“percutanenous coronary intervention”, “elective”, “cardiac”, “renal”, and“kidney”.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Inclusion criteria were: <$>\raster="rg1"<$> prospective RCTs published in English; <$>\raster="rg2"<$> elective PCI. Studies involving patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were not included. Studies without reporting one of the two endpoints (incidence of myocardial infarction, and acute kidney injury) were also excluded.
Study selection and quality assessment
Two investigators (Hanjun Pei and Yonggang Sui) independently reviewed all abstracts and included the full text in duplicate according to the described search strategy and criteria. Discussion was conducted for consensus in case of disagreement. Quality assessment was completed according to the Jadad scoring system: randomization; blinding; withdrawals and dropouts (a possible score between 0 and 5). Trials with a score of more than 3 were considered as high-quality studies .
Data extraction of study characteristic included trial design (year, country, PCI type, RIPC protocol, first cuff to balloon time and follow up) and patients characteristics [age, male, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, previous myocardial infarction (MI), smoke, number of vessels, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF), baseline renal function and stenting technique, post-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade, contrast volume, β-blockers, statins]. We tried to contact with the authors to ask for the related data, however, none of them responded.
The perioperative incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), and acute kidney injury (AKI) were the primary endpoints. The diagnostic criteria of MI was in accordance with the consensus of Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHO(world health organization) Task Force for the universal definition of myocardial infarction in 2007 : an elevation of troponin levels more than 3∼5 times the upper reference limit(URL). AKI was defined as follows: increase in serum creatinine (Cr ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dL) from baseline.
Data synthesis and analysis
For dichotomous ones (reported with incidence), we calculated odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Random-effect model was used for analysis in case of significant heterogeneity among trials. In order to explore the potential influential factors affecting the reduction by RIPC in MI, we set “I2 value of 40%”as the cut-off value . Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test and Egger's test. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the influence of each included study on the overall estimate of MI and AKI. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to explore the potential sources of significant heterogeneity for postoperative endpoints (a P value of less than 0.05 was accepted). P<0.05 (2-sided) was considered to be statistically significant. All statistical analysis was performed in Stata (version 9.0; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) and RevMan(version 5.0; Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK).
After 2040 abstracts were excluded from initial search due to duplications, reviews, experimental designs, and other irrelevant contents, sixty-seven potential studies were selected for detailed evaluation. Fifty-four studies were further excluded for the following reasons: cardiovascular surgery (n = 33), primary PCI(n = 6), endothelial trials (n = 7), nonRCT (n = 2), ongoing trial (n = 3), irretrievable or unclear data (n = 1) and noncardiorenal endpoints (n = 2). We also excluded one trial only reporting biomarkers of myocardial injury  and one trial reporting AKI without according to the presented definition(OR = 0.2; P = 0.05) . Eleven trials –,  with a total of 1713 patients ultimately met our criteria (Fig. 1). The ischemic protocol [cycles ×I/R(ischemia/reperfusion)] was 3∼4×5min/5min in eight studies , –, –, , 2×5min/5min in one , 3×3min/3min in one , and 1×5min/1min in one . For the primary endpoints, the incidence of MI was reported in ten –, , and the incidence of AKI in five , , –. We divided Lavi's trial  into two independent studies(expressed as Lavi I and Lavi II) according to the different conditioning protocols. Seven studies , , , –,  had a Jadad score of more than 3. The study design and patient characteristics were summarized in Table 1 and 2.
RCT, randomized controlled trial.
Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on the incidence of MI
The MI was reported in 1613 study subjects, and the overall incidence was 33.35% (255/868 in RIPC group, 283/745 in control group). Perioperative incidence of MI was significantly reduced by RIPC (OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0. 51 to 0.91; P = 0.01; I2 = 41.0%; Fig. 2). No evidence of significant publication bias were observed for incidence of MI (P = 0.06, Begg's test; P = 0.13, Egger's test). Sensitivity analysis excluding each included study at one time revealed that the individual study was consisted with the direction and size of the overall MI reducing effect (All P≤0.03).
Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on the incidence of AKI
The AKI was reported in 1044 study subjects, and the overall incidence was 6.99% (32/585 in RIPC group, 41/459 in control group). A lowered risk of perioperative AKI was observed in the remote preconditioned patients(OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.98; P = 0.04; Fig. 3)with nonsignificant heterogeneity(I2 = 39.0%). No evidence of significant publication bias were observed for the incidence of AKI (P = 0.57, Begg's test; P = 0.24, Egger's test). Sensitivity analysis excluding each included study at one time revealed that most individual study was consisted with the direction and size of the overall AKI reducing effect (All P≤0.05) with an exception of Er et al's (P = 0.65) or Hoole et al's (P = 0.09) study.
Potential Sources of Significant Heterogeneity
Age, male proportion, diabetes proportion, history of MI proportion, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, dyslipidemia proportion, hypertension proportion, target vessels ≥2 proportion, β-blockers usage, statins usage, and total conditioning time (cycles × duration of ischemic stimulus) were included in the random-effect univariate meta-regression analysis for the incidence of MI(ln transformation of OR) in PCI. As a result, the identified major source of heterogeneity was male proportion (coefficient = −0.049; 95% CI, −0.0970 to −0.0008; P = 0.047; adjusted R2 = 0.988) (Fig. 4). A subgroup with more than 75% of male subjects (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.76) has a more profound effect size than that with less than 75% of male ones (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.20)(P = 0.02 for subgroup difference; Table 3).
In the present systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized trials enrolling 1746 patients undergoing elective PCI, we found that RIPC could offer cardiorenal protection by reducing the incidence of perioperative MI and AKI. Moreover, this effect on MI is more pronounced in male subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first meta analysis focusing on the effect of RIPC on cardiac and renal events in elective PCI.
Currently, the most widely used type of ischemic conditioning during cardiac intervention is ischemic postconditioning (IPoC) which performed by intermittently reinflating the stent balloon immediately after reperfusion (most within 1 min). IPoC has been demonstrated to reduce myocardial enzyme levels , , increase left ventricular function , limit the infarct size and edema , and may improve clinical outcomes , . RIC is another endogenous approach with similar cardiac beneficial effect, as confirmed in our pooled analysis and Munk et al' study , . On the other hand, the prevention of RIC for AKI in patients during cardiovascular procedure has been proposed in several clinical studies , , , indicating the systemic organ protective potential. Moreover, RIC was conducted by inflating an upper-arm blood pressure cuff in the most included trials, which makes it more applicable and harmfulless than IPoC in the clinical settings.
There has always been a concern whether cardioprotective effects of RIPC established in young and healthy animals could be translated into the clinical population with various co-morbidities and/or cofounders (such as gender) in clinical practice , . Studies on infarct size reduction by ischemic postconditioning have shown to be gender-specific in animal models by other groups , . Zhou et al  using meta regression analysis also found that reduction in post-PCI myocardial enzyme levels by IPoC is more evident in male patients than female ones. In our analysis, the male proportion ranged from 47.5% to 88.0%, and further pooled analysis suggested an increased effect size (ln transformation of OR of MI) by 0.49 per 10% increase in male proportion, which was further confirmed in the subgroup analysis. This first evidence from second analysis of RCTs indicating that cardioprotection by RIPC may be more pronounced in male subjects could provide some advice for the clinical usage of RIPC.
The optimal conditioning protocol(cycles ×I/R) for RIPC to elicit organ protection in human remains unknown. Only one laboratory study from Xin et al  found that 3∼4, but not 1∼2 cycles of 5-min/5-min RIPC could provide additive cardioprotection to local postconditioning, and the similar results were obtained in 4 cycles of 3-min/3-min or 1-min/1-min. In the current analysis, 8 of 11 studies used 3∼4 cycles of 5-min/5-min for conditioning. Prasad et al  did not find any protective effect of 3 cycles of 3-min RIPC on cardiac enzyme levels (cTnT or CK-MB), PCI-related myonecrosis rate, or MI occurrence. Two cycles of 5-min RIPC was also proved to reduce cardiac enzyme level and PCI-related myonecrosis rate by Ghaemian et al . Moreover, one cycle of 5-min RIPC remained to be cardioprotective in Zografos's study . Taken together, the current evidence suggest that 5-min ischemic stimulus for conditioning protocol in RIPC is essential. Future studies should verify whether increase in conditioning cycle of RIPC may result in enhanced organ protection in the clinical settings.
Several limitations should be pointed out in this study. Firstly, the potential influences of other co-morbidities (such as age, multivessel disease, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia) , , cardiovascular medications (such as adenosine, nitroglycerin, and statins) –, and stenting techniques  may be underestimated for the lack of the individual patient data. Secondly, the baseline cardiac and renal function, pre-PCI TIMI grade, number of vessels, and contrast volume may be very important for the cardiorenal protection during PCI. However, we cannot explore their effect on RIPC-induced protection. Thirdly, the statistical power of our results may be inadequate because of the relative small number of the included studies and the enrolled subjects. Fourthly, no statistical significance in the Begg's and Egger's tests cannot rule out the potential impact of publication bias on our findings. Fifthly, other parameters for conditioning, such as the occlusion pressure and the limb, still need optimalization. Fifthly, in the included trials, the time window is quite wide-ranging in PCI (several ∼120 min). We tried to explore the potential effect by using meta-regression and subgroup analyses and failed to obtain an indicative finding(data not shown). Sixthly, the role of gender in the MI reduction by RIPC in elective PCI was indicated by meta regression and subgroup analyses. Whether it holds true in the individual subjects needs further investigation. Lastly, the long-term cardiorenal morbidity and mortality needs further evidence in future clinical trials.
Available evidence from the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that RIPC may offer cardiorenal protection by reducing the incidence of MI and AKI in patients undergoing PCI. Moreover, this effect on MI is more pronounced in male subjects. Future high-quality, large-scale clinical trials should focus on the long-term clinical effect of RIPC.
The authors thank three colleagues from Fuwai hospital: Dr Yonggang Sui (database management), Dr Chenghui Zhou (technical support, statistical analysis, and manuscript revision), and Dr Yang Wang (statistical review).
Conceived and designed the experiments: Y. Wu Y. Wei. Performed the experiments: HP. Analyzed the data: ST HZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ST HZ. Wrote the paper: HP. Critical revision for important intellectual content: YY.
- 1. Lindsey JB, Marso SP, Pencina M, Stolker JM, Kennedy KF, et al. (2009) Prognostic impact of periprocedural bleeding and myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention in unselected patients: results from the EVENT (evaluation of drug-eluting stents and ischemic events) registry. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2:1074–1082.
- 2. Leonardi S, Thomas L, Neely ML, Tricoci P, Lopes RD, et al. (2012) Comparison of the prognosis of spontaneous and percutaneous coronary intervention-related myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:2296–2304.
- 3. Mehran R, Aymong ED, Nikolsky E, Lasic Z, Iakovou I, et al. (2004) A simple risk score for prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention: development and initial validation. J Am Coll Cardiol 44:1393–1399.
- 4. Wi J, Ko YG, Kim JS, Kim BK, Choi D, et al. (2011) Impact of contrast-induced acute kidney injury with transient or persistent renal dysfunction on long-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart 97:1753–1757.
- 5. Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ (2007) Myocardial reperfusion injury. N Engl J Med 357:1121–1135.
- 6. Wong PC, Li Z, Guo J, Zhang A (2012) Pathophysiology of contrast-induced nephropathy. Int J Cardiol 158:186–192.
- 7. Quintavalle C, Fiore D, De Micco F, Visconti G, Focaccio A, et al. (2012) Impact of a high loading dose of atorvastatin on contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circulation 126:3008–3016.
- 8. Kay J, Chow WH, Chan TM, Lo SK, Kwok OH, et al. (2003) Acetylcysteine for prevention of acute deterioration of renal function following elective coronary angiography and intervention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289:553–558.
- 9. Przyklenk K, Bauer B, Ovize M, Kloner RA, Whittaker P (1993) Regional ischemic 'preconditioning' protects remote virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary occlusion. Circulation 87:893–899.
- 10. Kanoria S, Jalan R, Seifalian AM, Williams R, Davidson BR (2007) Protocols and mechanisms for remote ischemic preconditioning: a novel method for reducing ischemia reperfusion injury. Transplantation 84:445–458.
- 11. Loukogeorgakis SP, Panagiotidou AT, Broadhead MW, Donald A, Deanfield JE, et al. (2005) Remote ischemic preconditioning provides early and late protection against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans: role of the autonomic nervous system. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:450–456.
- 12. Heusch G (2013) Cardioprotection: chances and challenges of its translation to the clinic. Lancet 381:166–175.
- 13. Iliodromitis EK, Kyrzopoulos S, Paraskevaidis IA, Kolocassides KG, Adamopoulos S, et al. (2006) Increased C reactive protein and cardiac enzyme levels after coronary stent implantation. Is there protection by remote ischaemic preconditioning? Heart 92:1821–1826.
- 14. Hoole SP, Heck PM, Sharples L, Khan SN, Duehmke R, et al. (2009) Cardiac remote ischemic preconditioning in coronary stenting (CRISP Stent) study: a prospective, randomized control trial. Circulation 119:820–827.
- 15. Prasad A, Gossl M, Hoyt J, Lennon RJ, Polk L, et al. (2013) Remote ischemic preconditioning immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention does not impact myocardial necrosis, inflammatory response, and circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts: A single center randomized sham controlled trial. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 81:930–936.
- 16. Ghaemian A, Nouraei SM, Abdollahian F, Naghshvar F, Giussani DA, et al. (2012) Remote ischemic preconditioning in percutaneous coronary revascularization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 20:548–554.
- 17. Ahmed RM, Mohamed EH, Ashraf M, Maithili S, Nabil F, et al. (2013) Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on serum troponin T level following elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 82:E647–E653.
- 18. Luo SJ, Zhou YJ, Shi DM, Ge HL, Wang JL, et al. (2013) Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. Can J Cardiol 29:1084–1089.
- 19. Melo RMV, Costa LMA, Uchida A, Oikawa FTC, Ribeiro HB, et al. (2013) Prevention of myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary interventions with remote ischemic preconditioning. A comparative analysis with biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance. European Society of Cardiology. Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp. 1009.
- 20. Zografos TA, Katritsis GD, Tsiafoutis I, Bourboulis N, Katsivas A, et al. (2014) Effect of One-cycle Remote Ischemic Preconditioning to Reduce Myocardial Injury During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Am J Cardiol In press.
- 21. Lavi S, D'Alfonso S, Diamantouros P, Camuglia A, Garg P, et al. (2014) Remote Ischemic Postconditioning During Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: Remote Ischemic Postconditioning-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Randomized Trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv In press.
- 22. Xu X, Zhou Y, Luo S, Zhang W, Zhao Y, et al. (2013) Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in the Elderly Patients With Coronary Artery Disease With Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Elective Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation. Angiology In press.
- 23. Er F, Nia AM, Dopp H, Hellmich M, Dahlem KM, et al. (2012) Ischemic preconditioning for prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy: randomized pilot RenPro Trial (Renal Protection Trial). Circulation 126:296–303.
- 24. Igarashi G, Iino K, Watanabe H, Ito H (2013) Remote ischemic pre-conditioning alleviates contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease. Circ J 77:3037–3044.
- 25. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6:e1000097.
- 26. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, et al. (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 17:1–12.
- 27. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, White HD, Jaffe AS, Apple FS, et al. (2007) Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation 116:2634–2653.
- 28. Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327:557–560.
- 29. Carrasco-Chinchilla F, Munoz-Garcia AJ, Dominguez-Franco A, Millan-Vazquez G, Guerrero-Molina A, et al. (2013) Remote ischaemic postconditioning: does it protect against ischaemic damage in percutaneous coronary revascularisation? Randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Heart 99:1431–1437.
- 30. Zhou C, Yao Y, Zheng Z, Gong J, Wang W, et al. (2012) Stenting technique, gender, and age are associated with cardioprotection by ischaemic postconditioning in primary coronary intervention: a systematic review of 10 randomized trials. Eur Heart J 33:3070–3077.
- 31. Luo W, Li B, Chen R, Huang R, Lin G (2008) Effect of ischemic postconditioning in adult valve replacement. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 33:203–208.
- 32. Thuny F, Lairez O, Roubille F, Mewton N, Rioufol G, et al. (2012) Post-conditioning reduces infarct size and edema in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 59:2175–2181.
- 33. Lonborg J, Kelbaek H, Vejlstrup N, Jorgensen E, Helqvist S, et al. (2010) Cardioprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, evaluated by magnetic resonance. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 3:34–41.
- 34. Deftereos S, Giannopoulos G, Tzalamouras V, Raisakis K, Kossyvakis C, et al. (2013) Renoprotective effect of remote ischemic post-conditioning by intermittent balloon inflations in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:1949–1955.
- 35. Munk K, Andersen NH, Schmidt MR, Nielsen SS, Terkelsen CJ, et al. (2010) Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Patients With Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Angioplasty: Impact on Left Ventricular Function Assessed by Comprehensive Echocardiography and Gated Single-Photon Emission CT. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:656–662.
- 36. Bøtker HE, Kharbanda R, Schmidt MR, Bottcher M, Kaltoft AK, et al. (2010) Remote ischaemic conditioning before hospital admission, as a complement to angioplasty, and effect on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomised trial. Lancet 375:727–734.
- 37. Igarashi G, Iino K, Watanabe H, Ito H (2013) Remote Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Alleviates Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease. Circ J In press.
- 38. Zimmerman RF, Ezeanuna PU, Kane JC, Cleland CD, Kempananjappa TJ, et al. (2011) Ischemic preconditioning at a remote site prevents acute kidney injury in patients following cardiac surgery. Kidney Int 80:861–867.
- 39. Ferdinandy P, Schulz R, Baxter GF (2007) Interaction of cardiovascular risk factors with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, preconditioning, and postconditioning. Pharmacol Rev 59:418–458.
- 40. Penna C, Tullio F, Merlino A, Moro F, Raimondo S, et al. (2009) Postconditioning cardioprotection against infarct size and post-ischemic systolic dysfunction is influenced by gender. Basic Res Cardiol 104:390–402.
- 41. Crisostomo PR, Wang M, Wairiuko GM, Terrell AM, Meldrum DR (2006) Postconditioning in females depends on injury severity. J Surg Res 134:342–347.
- 42. Xin P, Zhu W, Li J, Ma S, Wang L, et al. (2010) Combined local ischemic postconditioning and remote perconditioning recapitulate cardioprotective effects of local ischemic preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H1819–1831.
- 43. Boengler K, Schulz R, Heusch G (2009) Loss of cardioprotection with ageing. Cardiovasc Res 83:247–261.
- 44. Heusch G (2012) Reduction of infarct size by ischaemic post-conditioning in humans: fact or fiction? Eur Heart J 33:13–15.
- 45. Fan Y, Yang S, Cao Y, Huang Y (2013) Effects of acute and chronic atorvastatin on cadioprotection of ischemic postconditioning in isolated rat hearts. Cardiovasc Ther 31:187–192.
- 46. Zhou C, Liu Y, Yao Y, Zhou S, Fang N, et al. (2013) β-blockers and volatile anesthetics may attenuate cardioprotection by remote preconditioning in adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 27:305–311.