Browse Subject Areas

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here.

  • Loading metrics

Viral Etiology and Clinical Profiles of Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in China

  • Chen Zhang ,

    Contributed equally to this work with: Chen Zhang, Na Zhu, Zhengde Xie

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China

  • Na Zhu ,

    Contributed equally to this work with: Chen Zhang, Na Zhu, Zhengde Xie

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China

  • Zhengde Xie ,

    Contributed equally to this work with: Chen Zhang, Na Zhu, Zhengde Xie

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Child and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

  • Roujian Lu,

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China

  • Bin He,

    Affiliations Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China, Huainan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Huainan, Anhui, China

  • Chunyan Liu,

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Child and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

  • Xuejun Ma , (WT); (XM)

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China

  • Wenjie Tan (WT); (XM)

    Affiliation Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China

Viral Etiology and Clinical Profiles of Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in China

  • Chen Zhang, 
  • Na Zhu, 
  • Zhengde Xie, 
  • Roujian Lu, 
  • Bin He, 
  • Chunyan Liu, 
  • Xuejun Ma, 
  • Wenjie Tan



No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period.


Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months) with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed.


Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29%) of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV) (54.05%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (51.08%), human bocavirus (BoCA) (33.78%), human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3) (15.41%), and adenovirus (ADV) (12.97%). Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV) but was only detected in 20 (5.41%) of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05). Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05).


Piconaviruses (EV/RV) and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.


Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the leading causes of children death globally [15]. Even in developed country, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), with its high mortality and morbidity among children younger than 5, impose great burden on the society [2,3].

Lacking of etiologic diagnosis is the main reason that more than 50% of ARI cases suffered unnecessary or inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, since most acute respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses [3]. This often leads to severe consequence such as high rate of resistance [6], especially in those with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), which frequently happens in virus-infected children [3]. Therefore etiology studies, especially those of viruses, have been performed to help diagnosis and proper antiviral treatment of SARI [7,8], as well as prevention of nosocomial infections among in-patients [9].

Diagnosis of ARI is complicated by the wide range of potential pathogens that can present with similar clinical symptoms [10,11]. In recent years, the introduction of nucleic acid based diagnostic tests has markedly improved our ability in understanding viral etiology among ARI patients [12]. xTAG® RVP FAST, a test based on multiplex PCR and Luminex Molecular Diagnostics Universal Array that detects 18 most commonly seen viral targets in respiratory infection, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has shown improved viral detection ability as compared to traditional methods like direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and culture methodology [1319].

Shortly after the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the avian influenza, the emergence of the influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic caused significant vibrations to the public health authorities and stressed the health systems worldwide. This highlighted our weaknesses regarding the diagnosis and assessment of SARI. China is the biggest developing country with largest population of child. However, we have found no published case-control studies regarding comprehensive viral etiology and clinical characterization of children SARI using commonly acknowledged reliable test in China. To better understand the role of respiratory viruses in children with SARI during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and postpandemic era, and help diagnosis and antiviral treatment, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of viral etiology and clinical characterization among hospitalized children with SARI admitted to the Beijing Children Hospital from May 2008 to March 2010. This study has increased our knowledge on the management of SARI and community-acquired pneumonia.


Ethics Statement

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, and the Scientific Committee of the Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, and the Ethical Review Committee of Beijing Children’s Hospital. Individual written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of all participants.

Participants and Clinical Definitions

All participants in this study were inpatients from Beijing Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and March 2010, diagnosed as SARI based on clinical grounds recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (20). Eligibility and classification of the clinical syndromes of SARI were determined from individual’s original record of medical history and examination. The criteria of hospitalized patient inclusion were: sudden onset of fever >38oC and cough or sore throat and difficulty breathing (dyspnea, oxygen saturation < 90%). Additional criteria were a normal or low leukocyte count, or lower chest wall indrawing.

Among these SARI cases, 120 were defined as very severe acute respiratory infection (VSARI) cases with any of the following criteria: 1) incidence of complication such as vomit or diarrhea, 2) respiratory failure or anhelation or heart failure, 3) ICU admissions.

Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or blood or induced sputum (IS) was collected from the patients at the first day of admission and transferred into virus transport medium and stored at -70 oC until tested. Demographic information and medical test result were collected with standardized forms.

Laboratory Methods

Nucleic acid was extracted from 200 µL of the virus transport medium using QIAamp MinElute Virus Spin Kit (Qiagen, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 10 µL of the nucleic acids were tested using xTAG® RVP FAST assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Abbott Molecular Inc., USA) and analyzed on Bio-Plex 200 system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., USA).

The RVP Fast assay simultaneously detects the following viruses: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); influenza(IFV) A (H1, H3, and H5) and B viruses; parainfluenza viruse (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; human metapneumovirus (hMPV); adenovirus(ADV); piconavirus(PIC) which includes enterovirus (EV) and rhinovirus (RV); human coronaviruse(HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E, and OC43; and human bocavirus(BoCA). The assay also includes an internal positive control added to each specimen at the extraction stage (Escherichia coli phage MS2 RNA) and a positive run control that is added to each run (bacteriophage lambda DNA).

Statistical Analysis

Comparisons between urban and suburb patients, as well as severe and very severe infection, were performed using chi-square test. Correlation of virus detected and clinical signs or diagnosis was performed using binary logistic regression of SPSS statistics 17.0. Comparison of continuous variables like body temperature was conducted using variance analysis.


Characteristics of Study Participants

370 hospitalized children with SARI from Beijing Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and March 2010 were selected in this study (Table 1). The mean age of study participants was 13.08(1 to 93) months. Most cases (82.7%) were under 24 months. 60.27% participants were male. 65.14% participants were from urban area, 34.86% from suburb or rural area of China (Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan provinces and Inner Mongolia). Among these patients, 34.43% suffered VSARI. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 94.29%(95% confidence interval: 91.4-96.8%) of NPS from enrolled participants. Also no case was positive of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on clinical finding and further IS culture (data not shown).

CharacteristicsNo.%(95% CI)
Age mean(range)13.08 (1-93)
Suburb or Rural12934.86
> = 6071.89
Viruses DetectedAny virus350(N=370)94.29 (91.4-96.8)
RSV18951.08 (45.5-55.9)
Parainfluenza viruses (PIVs)6718.11
PIV35715.41 (11.4-18.4)
hCoV- 229E30.81
hCoV -HKU141.08
hCoV- NL6341.08
hCoV -OC43164.32
Piconaviruse(PIC)EV/RV20054.05 (48.5-58.9)
AdenovirusADV4812.97 (9.5-16.2)
BocavirusBoCA12533.78 (28.9-38.4)

Table 1. Demographics and Viral Etiology of All Participants (N=370).

Download CSV

The clinical symptoms of all 370 participants presented with different severe respiratory infection signs including convulsion, shock, pleural effusion, cough, wet rale, dry rale, expectoration, vomiting, respiratory failure, and heart failure. The three most commonly observed symptoms were cough (97.57%), wet rale (62.43%), and expectoration (54.32%). 341 participants showed parenchymal infiltration in chest radiography (data not shown).

Viral Etiology and Seasonal Distribution of Respiratory Viruses

Viral prevalence is also presented in Table 1. Paramyxoviruses have the highest detection rate (66.22%), including RSV51.08%(A, 4.59%; B, 46.49%) (95%CI, 45.5-55.9%); hMPV, 8.65%; and hPIVs, 18.11%((especially PIV3, 15.41%; 95%CI, 11.4-18.4%)), followed by EV/RV (54.05%, 95% CI 48.5-58.9%), BoCV (33.78%, 95% CI 28.9-38.4%), ADV (12.97%, 95% CI 9.5-16.2%), Orthomyxoviruses (7.84%, IFVA,7.03%; IFVB, 0.81%) and hCoVs (6.76%: HCoV-OC43, 4.32%; HCoV-229E, 0.81%; HCoV-NL63, 1.08%; and HCoV-HKU1, 1.08%). Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus(IFV) but only detected in 20 (5.41%) of children enrolled in this study. We noticed that all pandemic H1N1 infection took place during 2009(from January through August).

Figure 1 shows the seasonal distribution of few dominant respiratory viruses and incidence of SARI. EV/RV was the most frequently discovered pathogen in this study; it was active throughout whole year, with a flat line of infection rate around 50% (Figure 1A). RSVB, in contrast to EV/RV, only prevailed in winter. It infected 60-100% patients in winter, but almost disappeared in summer (Figure 1B). hMPV showed similar distribution as RSVB, but the infection rate was much lower (Figure 1D). Of all the other 3 dominant pathogens: both PIV3 (Figure 1C) and BoCA(Figure 1E) showed a peak in the August of 2009, however ADV (Figure 1F) infection was always active with a flat line from September of 2008 to December of 2009.

Figure 1. Seasonal distribution of major respiratory viruses: A) EV/RV, B) RSVB, C) PIV3, D) hMPV, E) BoCA F) ADV, in children with ALRI of Beijing Children’s Hospital during September 2008 till March 2010.

Primary y-axis and bars describes number of cases, while secondary y-axis and lines describes infection rate.

Comparison between urban and suburban/rural patients

Patients from urban area are obviously older than suburb/rural ones, average age 15.34 vs. 8.72 months (Table 2). Further analysis of age distribution based on chi-test showed that ratio of young children (24 to 59 months) is obviously higher in rural area (21.6% vs. 3.9%, P < 0.001, Figure 2A).

No. (%) of Urban patientsNo. (%) of Suburb/rural patientsP value*
Age mean15.348.727.96E-05
Viral etiologyRSVA7 (2.9)10 (7.8)0.03
RSVB104 (43.2)68 (52.7)0.08
RSV109 (45.2)75 (58.1)0.02
RSV only34 (14.1)21 (16.3)0.58
RSV+ other viruses75 (31.1)54 (41.9)0.04
Non RSV116 (48.1)50 (38.8)0.08
INFA19 (7.9)7 (5.4)0.39
H1N113 (5.4)7 (5.4)0.99
hCoV-OC4312 (5)4 (3.1)0.40
PIV339 (16.2)18 (14)0.57
EV/RV140 (58.1)60 (46.5)0.03
hMPV14 (5.8)18 (14)0.01
ADV32 (13.3)16 (12.4)0.81
BoCA82 (34)43 (33.3)0.89
Clinical signBronchiolitis8 (3.3)11 (8.5)0.03
Asthmatic Bronchitis6 (2.5)10 (7.8)0.02
VSARI68 (28.2)52 (40.3)0.02

Table 2. Comparison between urban and suburb cases.

*All comparison between urban and suburb/rural patients were performed using Chi-square test
Download CSV
Figure 2. Comparison of age distribution among four age groups based on percentage of patients’ number.

A) Comparison between urban and suburb/rural patients. B) Comparison between VSARI and SARI patients.

Several viruses are more frequently detected among suburb/rural patients(Table 2), including RSV (urban, 45.2%, suburb/rural, 58.1%, P=0.02), especially RSVA (urban, 2.9%, suburb/rural, 7.8%, P=0.03), and RSV co-infected with other viruses (urban, 31.1%, 75/241, suburb/rural, 41.9%, 54/129, P=0.04), as well as hMPV (urban, 5.8%, 14/241, suburb/rural, 14%, 18/129, P=0.01).

Detection of piconaviruses (EV/RV), on the contrary, is higher in urban area (Urban, 58.1%, 140/241, suburb/rural, 46.5%, 60/129, P=0.03).

Clinical diagnosis of common virus related respiratory diseases was also compared. Incidence of capillary bronchitis (3.3% vs. 8.5%, P=0.03), and asthmatic bronchitis (2.5% vs. 7.8%, P =0.02) is higher in suburb/rural area (Table 2). No significant difference was detected among other diseases (data not shown). Occurrence of VSARI is obviously higher in suburb/rural area (40.3% vs. 28.2%, P=0.02).

Comparison between VSARI and SARI patients

To find the reason that causes severe infection, we performed complete comparison between VSARI patients and the SARI, including clinical signs, number of viral target, gender, and age(Table 3, Figure 2B).

No. (%) of all samplesNo. (%) of VSARINo. (%) of SARIP value
No. of viral target020 (5.41)7 (7.37)13 (4.73)0.06a
1112 (30.27)20 (21.05)92 (33.45)
> = 2238 (64.32)68 (71.58)170 (61.82)
GenderFemale147 (39.73)36 (37.89)111 (40.36)0.67a
Male223 (60.27)59 (62.11)164 (59.64)
Age mean(month)average13.0310.4813.90.06b

Table 3. Comparison between VSARI and SARI patients.

a Comparison of numbers and proportions were performed using chi-square test
b Comparison of continuous variables were performed using variance analysis
Download CSV

No difference in gender or average age was discovered between VSARI and SARI patients. Also multiple infection does not have significant impact in severity of infection (P=0.11). However, comparison of age group showed some difference (P = 6.93E-05). Judging from detailed list of Figure 2B, it is obvious that patients older than 24 months are more resistant to very severe infection (3.16% vs. 19.64%).

Association between Viral Etiology and Clinical Characterization among Hospitalized Children with SARI

To find the association between virus infection and clinical signs in SARI, binary logistic regression was performed between 4 commonly diagnosed respiratory abnormality, including anhelation, respiratory failure, heart failure and pleural effusion, and the viral target detected by xTAG® RVP FAST. As shown in Table 4, IFVA is significantly associated with anhelation (P=0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 12.5; 95%CI, 12.0-100). PIV3 is also associated with anhelation (P=0.02, OR=2.27; 95%CI, 1.16-4.55). HCoV-OC43 is associated with pleural effusion (P=0.01, OR=16.67; 95%CI, 1.85-100). hMPV is associated with all three symptoms of severe infection: respiratory failure (P=0.01, OR=4.35, 95%CI, 1.39-14.29), anhelation (P=0.029, OR=2.49; 95%CI, 1.10-5.65), and heart failure (P=0.03, OR=4.35; 95%CI, 1.12-16.67).

Association between commonly diagnosed respiratory disease and virus detection was also performed by binary logistic regression. As shown in Table 5, both RSVA (P=0.00, OR=11.11; 95%CI, 2.08-50) and RSVB (P=0.00, OR=10; 95%CI, 2.38-50) is associated with bronchiolitis and hMPV associated with Pneumonia/Bronchopneumonia (P=0.00, OR=14.29, 95%CI, 2.78-100).


In this study, we performed systematic study of viral etiology and clinical profiles among children with SARI admitted in Beijing Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and March 2010.

Unlike most previous studies in China, which primarily focused on common acute respiratory infections in children [2023], we exclusively studied the in-hospital patients with deeper infection in the respiratory tract and severer symptoms. 32.34% of the cases in this study suffered very severe symptoms such as heart failure and respiratory failure, as well as complications like diarrhea and vomiting. Another result that is different from previous study is a co-infection rate of 64.32%. Besides the special focus on in-patients, a broader viral spectrum and higher sensitivity of xTAG® RVP FAST test may also give rise to this [1518,24]. The most supportive evidence is an unprecedented high infection rates of EV/RV (54.05%), which is consistent with previous report that xTAG RVP FAST is extremely sensitive in EV/RV detection compared to other molecular based methods [19,25].

WHO and the Pan American Health Organization recommend hospital-based surveillance of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) as a tool to monitor severe disease caused by influenza. Although the study was performed during 2009 H1N1 pandemic period, our data showed that the special cohort of SARI patients resulted in relatively low incidence of influenza viruses (7.03%). Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus(IFV) but was only detected in 20 (5.41%) of children. As reported in previous study [5,26], children infected with influenza viruses are usually older than those suffered from RSV, while more than 80% patients in this study were under 24 months old.

Paramyxoviruses, especially RSV and hMPV, are might prevalence and might be the main reason of SARI outbreak during 2008 winter to 2009 spring in this study. Similar to previous studies [5,2729], RSV played an important role in children of SARI. It showed obvious seasonal distribution and was obviously related to several respiratory symptoms. Infection of RSVB increased and peaked with increase of SARI cases during September 2008 through March 2009. Both RSVA and RSVB increased the risk of bronchiolitis with high odds ratio (Table 5). The obvious relationship between RSV and severe respiratory symptoms coincides with a similar retrospective study performed on Kenya children of severe pneumonia, in which RSV, among all commonly discovered respiratory viruses, was found to be the only associated virus with children pneumonia [7,30].

Sig. aOR b95% CI for ORcSig. aOR b95% CI for ORc
hCoV OC430.552.130.18250.931.050.303.70

Table 5. Association between respiratory viruses and clinical diagnosis.

a: P value of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and clinical diagnosis
b: odds ratio of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and clinical diagnosis
c: 95% confidence interval of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and diagnosis
Download CSV

Another paramyxoviruse, hMPV, showed similar seasonality as RSVB, although the infection rate was not high among all cases. What’s more important is that infection of hMPV is obviously related to all three VSRI-related symptoms: anhelation, heart failure, and respiratory failure (Table 4).

AnhelationRespiratory failureHeart failurePleural effusion
Sig. aOR b95% CI for ORcSig. aOR b95% CI for ORcSig. aOR b95% CI for ORcSig. aOR b95% CI for ORc
hCoV OC430.791.190.334.170.490.430.

Table 4. Association between respiratory viruses and clinical signs.

a: P value of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and clinical signs
b: odds ratio of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and clinical signs
c: 95% confidence interval of binary logistic regression analysis between respiratory virus and clinical signs
Download CSV

The third commonly detected paramyxovirus was PIV3, a viral target infects about 1-13% of children with pulmonary diseases. Infection rate varies with age and severity of cohort among different studies [5,31]. PIV3 is the predominant subtype among parainfluenza viruses, and was responsible for 83.8% parainfluenza infection in this cohort. To our knowledge, PIV3 was more related with immunocompromised children than common SARI patients in previous studies [3235].

It has frequently been reported that infection of RSV and hMPV result in same or similar symptoms and were indistinguishable on clinical basis [911,36,37]. However, our analysis of association produced somehow different results: hMPV was more directly related with VSARI and thus improved risk of pneumonia, while RSV was more related to risk of bronchiolitis.

In contrast to paramyxoviruses, infection rate of EV/RV distributed relatively even throughout the whole year, in spite of its high total detection rate (50.4%). This assumption is supported by association study, in which no confident relationship was found between EV/RV and any severe symptoms (Table 4) or any diagnosis (Table 5). In reference to previous studies, EV/RV in respiratory tract is frequently detected by PCR among children of upper respiratory infection and asymptomatic controls. However, few evidence has been found supporting association between EV/RV detection and severe lower respiratory symptoms [36,37]. Further studies are needed to address the relevance of the EV/RV single and coinfections on clinical outcomes.

Great difference was discovered between urban and suburb patients in this study. Children from suburb area are apparently younger, with higher incidence of SARI, and were more susceptible to RSV, hMPV, and EV/RV. Bronchiolitis and asthmatic Bronchitis also happened more frequently in suburb area (Table 2).

For each of the five most popular pathogens: BoCA, ADV, RSV, EV/RV (piconaviruses), and PIV3, we performed binary logistic regression between existence of co-infection and all clinical signs. Unfortunately, no statistical significance was observed in any run of regression(data not shown).

To our knowledge, this is the first report on the viral etiology, epidemiological and clinical profiles of hospitalized children with SARI using a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets in Asia. Improved laboratory test highlighted the significance of viral etiology and its distribution among children with SARI in China. Our data is similar to the recent surveillance report on SARI in South Africa by use of the validated RT-PCR multiplex assay(39), which is also consistent with several studies in other parts of the world(3,7,30). Secondary, Comparison analysis was firstly performed between urban and suburban/rural patients in china; In addition, this is also the first study on association analysis between viral etiology and clinical profile among VSARI and SARI patients. Our data first indicated that hMPV was more directly related with SARI and thus improved risk of pneumonia. Association viral etiology with clinical outcome might assist clinicians in appropriately treating hospitalized children with SARI.


We are grateful to the staff and patients of the pediatric wards of Beijing Children Hospital, and to the clinical, Information and Communication Technology, and laboratory staff who contributed to this study. We thank Dr Lyna Zhang, CDC of USA, for their proofreading of this manuscript. No compensation was received for participation in this research.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CZ ZX XM WT. Performed the experiments: CZ NZ XZ RL BH CL. Analyzed the data: CZ NZ ZX WT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RL. Wrote the manuscript: CZ NZ WT.


  1. 1. Diallo AH, Meda N (2010) Estimates of mortality in children younger than 5 years for Burkina Faso. Lancet 376: 1223-1224. doi: PubMed: 20934595.
  2. 2. Fujitsuka A, Tsukagoshi H, Arakawa M, Goto-Sugai K, Ryo A et al. (2011) A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory viruses detected in Japanese children with acute wheezing illness. BMC Infect Dis 11: 168. doi: PubMed: 21663657.
  3. 3. Tregoning JS, Schwarze J (2010) Respiratory viral infections in infants: causes, clinical symptoms, virology, and immunology. Clin Microbiol Rev 23: 74-98. doi: PubMed: 20065326.
  4. 4. Kim CK, Choi J, Callaway Z, Kim HB, Chung JY et al. (2010) Clinical and epidemiological comparison of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in seoul, Korea, 2003-2008. J Korean Med Sci 25: 342-347. doi: PubMed: 20191030.
  5. 5. Khor CS, Sam IC, Hooi PS, Quek KF, Chan YF (2012) Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years. BMC Pediatr 12: 32. doi: PubMed: 22429933.
  6. 6. Gootz TD (2010) The global problem of antibiotic resistance. Crit Rev Immunol 30: 79-93. doi: PubMed: 20370622.
  7. 7. Hammitt LL, Kazungu S, Morpeth SC, Gibson DG, Mvera B et al. (2012) A preliminary study of pneumonia etiology among hospitalized children in Kenya. Clin Infect Dis 54 Suppl 2: S190-S199. doi: PubMed: 22403235.
  8. 8. O’Callaghan-Gordo C, Bassat Q, Morais L, Díez-Padrisa N, Machevo S et al. (2011) Etiology and epidemiology of viral pneumonia among hospitalized children in rural Mozambique: a malaria endemic area with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 30: 39-44. doi: PubMed: 20805786.
  9. 9. Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Iwane MK, Blumkin AK, Edwards KM et al. (2009) The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. N Engl J Med 360: 588-598. doi: PubMed: 19196675.
  10. 10. Lazar I, Weibel C, Dziura J, Ferguson D, Landry ML et al. (2004) Human metapneumovirus and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1318-1320. doi: PubMed: 15324559.
  11. 11. Mammas IN, Koutsaftiki C, Nika E, Vagia F, Zaravinos A et al. (2011) Detection of human metapneumovirus in infants with acute respiratory tract infection. Mol Med Report 4. : 267-271.
  12. 12. Mahony JB (2008) Detection of respiratory viruses by molecular methods. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 716-747. doi: PubMed: 18854489.
  13. 13. Mahony J, Chong S, Merante F, Yaghoubian S, Sinha T et al. (2007) Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J Clin Microbiol 45: 2965-2970. doi: PubMed: 17596360.
  14. 14. Gröndahl B, Puppe W, Weigl J, Schmitt HJ (2005) Comparison of the BD Directigen Flu A+B Kit and the Abbott TestPack RSV with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA for rapid detection of influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus. Clin Microbiol Infect 11: 848-850. doi: PubMed: 16153263.
  15. 15. Gadsby NJ, Hardie A, Claas EC, Templeton KE (2010) Comparison of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel fast assay with in-house real-time PCR for respiratory viral infection diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 48: 2213-2216. doi: PubMed: 20357215.
  16. 16. Ginocchio CC, Zhang F, Manji R, Arora S, Bornfreund M et al. (2009) Evaluation of multiple test methods for the detection of the novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) during the New York City outbreak. J Clin Virol 45: 191-195. doi: PubMed: 19540158.
  17. 17. Wong S, Pabbaraju K, Lee BE, Fox JD (2009) Enhanced viral etiological diagnosis of respiratory system infection outbreaks by use of a multitarget nucleic acid amplification assay. J Clin Microbiol 47: 3839-3845. doi: PubMed: 19828744.
  18. 18. Mansuy JM, Mengelle C, Da Silva I, Grog I, Saune K et al. (2012) Performance of a rapid molecular multiplex assay for the detection of influenza and picornaviruses. Scand J Infect Dis.
  19. 19. Babady NE, Mead P, Stiles J, Brennan C, Li H et al. (2012) Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP assay for detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients at a cancer hospital. J Clin Microbiol 50: 2282-2288. doi: PubMed: 22518855.
  20. 20. Xiao NG, Zhang B, Duan ZJ, Xie ZP, Zhou QH et al. (2012) [Viral etiology of 1165 hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Zhi 14: 28-32.
  21. 21. Peng J, Kong W, Guo D, Liu M, Wang Y et al. (2012) The epidemiology and etiology of influenza-like illness in Chinese children from 2008 to 2010. J Med Virol 84: 672-678. doi: PubMed: 22337308.
  22. 22. Xie ZD, Xiao Y, Liu CY, Hu YH, Yao Y et al. (2011) [Three years surveillance of viral etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children from 2007 to 2010]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 49: 745-749.
  23. 23. Chen HZ (2011) [Clinical study on interstitial lung disease in children of China]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 49: 734-739.
  24. 24. Jokela P, Piiparinen H, Mannonen L, Auvinen E, Lappalainen M (2012) Performance of the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast in a clinical laboratory setting. J Virol Methods 182: 82-86. doi: PubMed: 22465255.
  25. 25. Dabisch-Ruthe M, Vollmer T, Adams O, Knabbe C, Dreier J (2012) Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay. BMC Infect Dis 12: 163. doi: PubMed: 22828244.
  26. 26. Feikin DR, Njenga MK, Bigogo G, Aura B, Aol G et al. (2012) Etiology and Incidence of viral and bacterial acute respiratory illness among older children and adults in rural western Kenya, 2007-2010. PLOS ONE 7: e43656. doi: PubMed: 22937071.
  27. 27. Wang W, Cavailler P, Ren P, Zhang J, Dong W et al. (2010) Molecular monitoring of causative viruses in child acute respiratory infection in endemo-epidemic situations in Shanghai. J Clin Virol 49: 211-218. doi: PubMed: 20855230.
  28. 28. Zhang HY, Li ZM, Zhang GL, Diao TT, Cao CX et al. (2009) Respiratory viruses in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in harbin, China. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 458-460. PubMed: 19934539.
  29. 29. Chen YW, Huang YC, Ho TH, Huang CG, Tsao KC et al. (2012) Viral etiology of bronchiolitis among pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan with emphasis on newly identified respiratory viruses. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. PubMed: 23040235.
  30. 30. Berkley JA, Munywoki P, Ngama M, Kazungu S, Abwao J et al. (2010) Viral etiology of severe pneumonia among Kenyan infants and children. JAMA 303: 2051-2057. doi: PubMed: 20501927.
  31. 31. Chen DH, Lin YN, Lan SL, Pan XA, Zeng QS et al. (2012) [Clinical characteristics of bronchiolitis obliterans in pediatric patients]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 50: 98-102.
  32. 32. Maeng SH, Yoo HS, Choi SH, Yoo KH, Kim YJ et al. (2012) Impact of parainfluenza virus infection in pediatric cancer patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59: 708-710. doi: PubMed: 22095941.
  33. 33. Josephs S, Kim HW, Brandt CD, Parrott RH (1988) Parainfluenza 3 virus and other common respiratory pathogens in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7: 207-209. doi: PubMed: 2833716.
  34. 34. Apalsch AM, Green M, Ledesma-Medina J, Nour B, Wald ER (1995) Parainfluenza and influenza virus infections in pediatric organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 20: 394-399. doi: PubMed: 7742447.
  35. 35. Vilchez RA, Dauber J, McCurry K, Iacono A, Kusne S (2003) Parainfluenza virus infection in adult lung transplant recipients: an emergent clinical syndrome with implications on allograft function. Am J Transplant 3: 116-120. doi: PubMed: 12603206.
  36. 36. Wright PF, Deatly AM, Karron RA, Belshe RB, Shi JR et al. (2007) Comparison of results of detection of rhinovirus by PCR and viral culture in human nasal wash specimens from subjects with and without clinical symptoms of respiratory illness. J Clin Microbiol 45: 2126-2129. doi: PubMed: 17475758.
  37. 37. Jartti T, Lehtinen P, Vuorinen T, Koskenvuo M, Ruuskanen O (2004) Persistence of rhinovirus and enterovirus RNA after acute respiratory illness in children. J Med Virol 72: 695-699. doi: PubMed: 14981776.