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Fig 1.

AV levels of automation.

Reproduced AS-IS with permission from SAE-International J3016TM, [5].

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Fig 2.

Overview of AV market, 2015–2030 estimated timeline.

Not meant to be exhaustive. The data points were estimated based on media articles from,,,, and from manufacturers’ websites and public statements.

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Fig 3.

Breakdown of AV accident reporters.

Data from September 2014 to March 2017.

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Fig 4.

Number of vehicles and total miles travelled for each reporting agency.

BMW omits fleet size, here reported as a zero.

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Table 1.

Summary table of reported AV accidents.

Data from September 2014 to March 2017. Time of the day is provided in 24-hours format. AM, PM indicate before noon and after noon time, when exact time of day is not available. “V” stands for vehicle and is followed by the number of the vehicle involved (e.g., V#2, second vehicle other than the AV). Status of vehicles and relative direction formatting is as follows: “AV status / V#2 status; relative direction”. Relative direction formatting is as follows: “\” if vehicles travelled in the same direction, “|” if perpendicular” (example: Moving/Stopped; |, meaning AV moving, Vehicle #2 stopped; vehicles traveling in perpendicular directions).

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Fig 5.

Mapping of AV accidents’ locations.

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Fig 6.

Visual reconstruction of AV accidents’ dynamics.

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Fig 7.

Damage location breakdown for vehicles involved in collisions.

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Fig 8.

Speed distribution for vehicles involved in the AV accidents.

The x-axis shows Accidents Identification following the IDs indicated in Table 1 and Fig 6.

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Fig 9.

Relative speed of the colliding vehicles in reported AV accidents and breakdown.

The x-axis shows Accidents Identification following the IDs indicated in Table 1 and Fig 6.

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Fig 10.

Specific characteristics and locations identified in the AV accident reports.

Each column is out of 26 reports; categories are not mutually exclusive.

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Fig 11.

Accidents distribution by AV make.

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Table 2.

Google's fleet breakdown and accident frequencies.

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Table 3.

Accident frequencies by reporters/make of AV accidents.

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Table 4.

Comparison of estimated accident frequencies for AV vs. conventional vehicles.

Estimate for conventional vehicles is based on [19, 20] which provide updated data until the end of 2015. Data for 2016 and 2017 is still being process by FHWA and NHTSA.

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Fig 12.

Break-down of accidents in the identified categories.

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Fig 13.

Correlation between cumulative accidents and cumulative autonomous miles.

The data shown is only up to December 2016 as some of the manufacturers have yet to provide the cumulative mileage driven for the first part of 2017.

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