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Fig 1.

Flow diagram of study selection.

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Table 1.

Main characteristics of 13 studies included in the meta-analysis.

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Fig 2.

Summary of risk of bias for RCTs (RevMan 5.3).

Red: High risk; Yellow: Unclear risk; Green: Low risk * Because the studies compared bed rest versus ambulation, it is too easy for the patients to find out which group they are in. So it is not likely to fulfill the requirement of blinding of participants. ** Details about the reasons for this assessment are listed in the supporting information S3 Table.

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Table 2.

Quality assessment of cohort studies based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (range, 1–9 stars).

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Fig 3.

Funnel plot of studies included.

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Fig 4.

Begg’s and Egger’s tests for publication bias of included studies.

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Fig 5.

Meta-analysis of the incidence of primary end events among 1674 DVT patients with early ambulation and 1595 DVT patients with bed rest.

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Table 3.

Summary of subgroup and sensitivity analyses of primary endpoints.

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Fig 6.

Meta-analysis of VAS change.

In this figure, the data in “Mean” and “SD” column is the mean change of VAS rather than initial mean VAS.

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Fig 7.

Subgroup analysis of VAS change during the treatment period.

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Fig 8.

Meta-analysis of change of circumference of affected limb.

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