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Figure 1.

Samples and soil characteristics biplots (A) and loadings plots (B) from RDA performed on the relative concentration of PLFAs in all management practices:residual herbicide (♦), tillage (▲), oats+tillage (○), oats straw (●), land abandonment (□) and wild forest coverage (■).

PLFAs used for microbial groups designation are marked as: underlined (bacteria), framed (fungi), * (G- bacteria), + (G+ bacteria) and “ (actinobacteria). Corg: soil organic carbon; N: total nitrogen; Csol: soluble carbon; WHC: water holding capacity; AS: aggregate stability; Cmic: microbial biomass C; BSR: basal soil respiration; qCO2: BSR/Cmic.

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Figure 2.

Values of total PLFAs biomass and various PLFA biomarkers (mean ± standard deviation) for all soil management practices.

A one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0.05) were used to compare significant differences. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences among management practices. G+: Gram positive; G-: Gram-negative.

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