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Figure 1.

Schematic tree of haplogroup L0 and the root of the human mtDNA diversity.

The tree is scaled against the maximum likelihood (ML) age estimates (in ka). Colour scheme for each clade indicates the probable geographic origin (eastern or southern Africa).

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Figure 2.

Tree of haplogroup L0 sequences generated using the Network software.

The colours indicate the geographic origin of each sample.

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Figure 3.

Frequency maps based on HVS-I data for haplogroups L0 (total) (A), L0a (B), L0b (C), L0d (D), L0f (E) and L0k (F).

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Figure 4.

Probabilistic distribution of founder clusters across migration times scanned at 200 years intervals from 0–80 ka, using the f1 criterion, for southern African L0 sequences (black filled line), for overall southern African mtDNA variation (grey filled line) and for L0 central African sequences considering an eastern African source (dashed line in grey).

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Figure 5.

Schematic representation of the major inferred migrations involving mtDNA haplogroup L0.

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Figure 6.

Bayesian skyline plot (BSP), indicating hypothetical effective population size through time, based on data from the entire L0 haplogroup.

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