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Figure 1.

Sampled distribution map showing the 76 sampled Aphonopelma haplotypes.

Colored circles represent sampling localities and correspond to species from the phylogenetic tree in Figures 1 & 2. The dark grey region represents the defined Colorado River Basin. Light red shading represents a generalized distribution map for A. hentzi. The dotted line circle corresponds to the ten independent PhyloMapper runs representing the area of hypothetical ancestral hentzi populations.

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Table 1.

PCR primers used to amplify and sequence the DNA barcoding regions CO1 and ND1-16S.

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Table 2.

BEAST divergence date estimation for two hypothetical mtDNA rates of evolution.

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Figure 2.

Aphonopelma hentzi haplotype network.

Specimens sampled from across the A. hentzi distribution are represented in a haplotype network. Black objects represent haplotypes designated as “southern” haplotypes (south of the Colorado River) and white objects represent “northern” haplotypes (north of the Colorado River). The * denotes the APH0909 haplotype, the only “southern” haplotype represented in the most commonly shared haplotype box (proportionally separated between “northern” and “southern” haplotypes).

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Table 3.

Demographic history and genetic diversity in Aphonopelma hentzi.

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Figure 3.

Inferred Bayesian mtDNA phylogeny for the Aphonopelma of Texas.

The key (inset) references the seven species delimited in this analysis by species name (Red = A. hentzi; Orange = A. moderatum; Blue = A. anax; Yellow = A. armada; Pink = A. sp. nov 1; Brown = A. sp. nov 2; Green = A. sp. Carlsbad Green). These colors and species combinations are consistent throughout the figures. A. hentzi population designations are highlighted by light grey boxes. Outlined boxes around species names denote members of the hentzi cryptic species group. A thickened branch denotes species clades with Bayesian posterior probabilities of 1.00 and ML bootstrap values ≥95%. Support for major nodes with Bayesian posterior probabilities of 1.00 and ML bootstrap values ≥95% are denoted by the star symbol. Western United States species comprise the outgroup.

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Table 4.

Average interspecific uncorrected pairwise genetic distances (p-distances) for the Aphonopelma found in Texas.

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Figure 4.

Aphonopelma species represented in this analysis.

Sampled species consist of A – A. hentzi; B – A. anax; C – A. moderatum; D – A. armada; E – A. sp. Carlsbad Green; F. A. sp. nov 1. A. sp. nov 2 is not pictured.

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Figure 5.

Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent species delimitation tree.

GMYC clusters delimited from the single-threshold model are highlighted and grouped according to their defined species. A total of 13 independent coalescence groups plus 3 singletons (singletons constitute a cluster given more population representatives) were delimited for the ingroup (14 total ML clusters; CI = 14–16). The data revealed strong geographic structuring and phylogenetic gene tree clustering in all putative species groups except A. hentzi. Species and color combinations correspond to those represented in Figure 1.

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Figure 6.

4% clock-constrained gene tree for the species of Aphonopelma found in Texas.

To assign dates to population-splitting events within the A. hentzi lineage and assess the importance of these historical events on cladogenesis across the whole tree, a fixed molecular clock at 4% was applied in BEAST to evaluate how this mygalomorph rate of evolution relates to the events of the Pleistocene. Population splits within the A. hentzi clade (northern vs. southern) are predicted to have originated around 237,000 ybp (294,900−183,200), represented by the light red box. The Pliocene/Pleistocene/Holocene time frame is displayed at top, years from present on the bottom, with The Last Glacial Maximum designated by the grey box. The bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals.

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Table 5.

PhyloMapper predicted ancestral population localities for the A. hentzi clade.

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