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Host-symbiont stress response to lack-of-sulfide in the giant ciliate mutualism

Fig 1

Life cycle of Zoothamnium niveum.

The swarmers are the dispersal stage (1), and look for a sulfide source to settle. Once settled, the swarmer transforms into the terminal zooid at the top of the new colony and grows a stalk. Note that the white part of the stalk is overgrown by the symbiont, but the lower black part is aposymbiotic (2). The terminal zooid divides and produces the terminal zooids for each branch (3). The branch grows by divisions of the terminal zooid on the tip of the branch, creating microzooids and macrozooids, that eventually detach as swarmers (4). Light micrographs not to scale. Note that the lower part of the stalk, lacking white symbionts, is outlined.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254910.g001