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The extraordinary osteology and functional morphology of the limbs in Palorchestidae, a family of strange extinct marsupial giants

Fig 4

Labelled illustrations of the Palorchestes azael left humerus NMV P159792.

(A) anterior; (B) lateral; (C) posterior; (D) medial views. Hatching indicates surface damage to cortical bone, dashed lines indicate inferred bone contours. Abbreviations: bg, bicipital groove; brf, fossa for m. brachialis origin; ca, capitulum; del, deltoid insertion; eta, origin for m. epitrochleoanconeus; gt, greater tubercle; hh, humeral head; inf, fossa for insertion of m. infraspinatus; ldtm, insertion for mm. latissimus dorsi and teres major; le, lateral epicondyle; lsc, lateral supracondylar crest; lt, lesser tubercle; me, medial epicondyle; pec, pectoral crest; subf, fossa for insertion of m. subscapularis; supf, fossa for insertion of m. supraspinatus; sf, supracondylar foramen; tr, trochlea; tri, origin for humeral heads of m. triceps brachii. Scale bar 50 mm.

Fig 4