Blue light-dependent human magnetoreception in geomagnetic food orientation
(A) Orientation profiles of unstarved men (top), starved men (middle), and (starved men–unstarved men) (bottom) from the tests in Fig 2A, 2C and 2D and Fig A in S2 Fig. The orientation index was calculated as [absolute value of (direction vector angle– 180°)] ∕ 180 and ranges 0 to 1. In each trial, the dot and error bar indicate the mean and standard error of the mean (SEM) of the 20 male subjects, respectively. (B) An analysis of the data in (A). (left, center) In each session, the values of mean and error bar denote the mean and SEM of dots in the corresponding session of a), respectively. (right) Mean and error bar of a session indicate the mean and SEM of the values calculated as [(orientation index value of a trial in the center)–(orientation index value of the same trial in the left)] in the session. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, n.s.: not significant. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01. (C) Blood glucose levels during the magnetic north orientation assay in men (left) and women (right). In a separate set of experiments, blood glucose level at shortly before the first session and immediately after each session was determined in the same starved or unstarved men and women subjects. Student’s t-test, n.s.: not significant. #, P < 0.01; **, P < 0.0001; ***, P < 0.000001. Statistical values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).