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Blue light-dependent human magnetoreception in geomagnetic food orientation

Fig 2

Geomagnetic field-sensitive food orientation in starved men.

(A) and (B) The subjects had meals normally and were tested under the no association experimental condition. There was no notable magnetic north orientation in the unstarved men (A) and women (B). (A) α = 64.4°, r = 0.06, P = 0.43 (V test), P = 0.93 (Rayleigh test), n = 20. (B) α = 207.1°, r = 0.06, P = 0.64 (V test), P = 0.92 (Rayleigh test), n = 21. (C) and (E) No magnetic north orientation in the starved men (C) and women (E), when they were tested under the no association experimental condition. (C) α = 79.7°, r = 0.12, P = 0.45 (V test), P = 0.77 (Rayleigh test), n = 20. (E) α = 152.3°, r = 0.31, P = 0.96 (V test), P = 0.14 (Rayleigh test), n = 21. (D) and (F) A significant (D) and unremarkable (F) magnetic north orientation in the starved men and women, respectively, tested after the food association. (D) α = 350.0°, r = 0.51, P = 0.00043 (V test; 95% confidence interval, 326.9°–31.1°), P = 0.004 (Rayleigh test), n = 20. (F) α = 206.8°, r = 0.28, P = 0.96 (V test), P = 0.19 (Rayleigh test), n = 21. (G) and (H) An unremarkable (G) and a significant (H) magnetic east orientation in the starved men under the no association and the food association condition, respectively. (G) α = 285.8°, r = 0.24, P = 0.92 (V test), P = 0.33 (Rayleigh test), n = 20. (H) α = 83.2°, r = 0.34, P = 0.015 (V test; 95% confidence interval, 33.2°–133.2°), P = 0.09 (Rayleigh test), n = 20. Circular statistical analyses were performed using the V test and Rayleigh test for all experiments. Note that throughout the study, the V test was more appropriate to evaluate whether the subjects oriented toward the magnetic north (east) along which the food association/no association phase was conducted. In each circular diagram, each of the dots and arrow indicate the subject’s mean direction vector and group mean vector of the subjects, respectively. Throughout, the dashed circle, solid outer circle, and solid inner circle indicate the gradation of 0.25, the maximum value (i.e., 1.0) for the length of a subject’s mean vector, and the minimum length of the group mean vector needed for significance in the Rayleigh test (P = 0.05), respectively. mN, the modulated magnetic north; mE, the modulated magnetic east; α, group mean vector as clockwise degree; r, length of group mean vector. The dashed lines and the solid arc indicate the confidence interval and the minimum length of the group mean vector needed for significance in the V test (P = 0.05), respectively.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211826.g002